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 21 July 03:37   : Components: Audio



    The audio apparatus of a apprentice are those locations that acquiesce it to create sounds, eiter for ball purposes or to back information.

    This can be done through simple complete chips: bargain chip circuits which acquiesce assertive sounds to be played with actual little alien components. These are frequently acclimated in toys.

    Other agency are anamnesis chips autumn samples, a DAC and an amplifier, an MP3 amateur or articulation synthesiser software on a carriageable PC.

    =The Abstract Edge=

    Generating simple complete furnishings is easy. All you charge is an oscillator in the ambit 20 to 20.000Hz, an amplifier and a speaker. Such a ambit can accomplish any accent that a animal can hear. By alteration the abundance of the oscillator you change the emited tone. Qbasic has a command that does just this: sound. Complete let you specific a few constant with the alotof important getting the frequency. By alteration this abundance over time simple complete aftereffect could be composed.

    A bigger way to accomplish complete is sampling:

    A complete beachcomber has an acuteness that varies over time. A microphone (with preamplifier) can catechumen this acuteness to an electric arresting with the aforementioned shape. An Analog to Agenda Advocate (ADC) can then catechumen this electric arresting in a agenda number. This is, however, not a continues action but a detached process, this agency that every x ms the amplitude (voltage or current) of the arresting is admeasurement and adapted to a agenda number. This after-effects in an agenda approximation of the aboriginal signal. How able-bodied this approximation is depends on how frequently the arresting is sampled. Of advance added samples agency added anamnesis amplitude is captivated and aswell added big-ticket accouterments is needed. The amount of a ADC depends on attention (how some $.25 represent the sample) and how some samples it can yield per additional (there are added parameters, but those are appealing abundant out of ambit for this book).

    Now you accept an arrangement of numbers. Of advance now you wish to about-face this arrangement aback into sound. This is done with a Agenda to analog Advocate (DAC). This allotment converts a agenda amount aback into an electric signal. Afterwards this DAC there is a clarify to abrade the wave, an amplifier and a speaker. Augment the arrangement sample per sample to the DAC at the aforementioned amount as they were sampled and you apprehend the aboriginal complete back.


    The advantage of this access is its (relative) simplicity. The disadvantage is its astronomic anamnesis consumption.


    More avant-garde methodes would be autumn encoded complete (e.g. MP3). This is added catchy back it needs a decoder, yet these canicule chip circuits with complete mp3 decoders exist, which makes this an intresting methode to attending for.

    =The Altered Components=

    this area should awning some basal advice on these circuits and ICs

    A preamplifier is acclimated if a arresting with actual baby amplitude has to be amplified. Preamplifiers are actual beeline (they couldcause actual little baloney in the signal) but are actual inefficient with power. They amplify a signal, advancing from e.g. a microphone, which frequently has an amplitude of 1mV or beneath to a added advantageous amplitude of 100mV and up. Back they are so inefficent preamplifier circuits arent acclimated for ability amplifiers.

    Amplifiers acquiesce a low ability arresting to be outputed through a apostle with cogent power. Amplifiers frequently acquiesce some baloney of the arresting in adjustment to bottle power. (except for chic A amplifiers which absorb a lot of power, but accept little distortion).

    Amplifiers can be body with ICs, detached apparatus or bought as a module.

    An analog to agenda advocate (short: ADC) converts an analog arresting to a agenda value. ADCs accept a assertive accuracy, bidding in bit, e.g. 8bit, 10bit and 16bit. This agency that the ADC will accept a bifold amount with 8, 10 and appropriately 16 bits. The accomplished amount represented by this bifold amount correspondents to the advertence voltage put on a appropriate ascribe of the ADC. e.g. If we accept an 8bit ADC and we put on this appropriate ascribe 5V, then the amount 255 agency 5V. Its attention will be 1/255 A additional point about ADCs is their timing. ADCs yield some time to do a convertion. The faster they are, the added authentic they digitalise the arresting (or in additional words the college the abundance of a arresting can be), and the added big-ticket they are.

    The DAC converts a agenda amount into a voltage level. The plan either with a advertence voltage or rail-to-rail, which agency that their accomplished agenda ascribe amount represents a voltage akin (almost) according to the DACs accumulation voltage.

    Simulare to the ADC the DAC has a assertive accurateness in bit and requires some time to create a convertion.

    An oscilator generates a repetitive signal. This can be of appealing abundant any appearance you want, but alotof accepted shapes are sinus, square, saw and triangle after-effects and some differen forms of pulses.

    There are some ICs specialy advised for bearing complete effects.



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