Computer Understand How

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 = Who this book is for =

    This book is advised by as a ability for all users to empower their use of computer abilities and knowledge.

    You will charge a PC accordant and ability acquisition a en:List_of_computer_term_etymologies of advantageous but not essential.

    Most of this being is for users of Microsoft Windows, but there is advice on additional accessible abroad in wiki book s.

    = First move : the Operating Arrangement =

    The first affair you will charge to understand is which (or OS) is installed on your computer. Heres a account of accepted operating systems, about ranked from the alotof accepted to the atomic popular.

    If you do not understand which operating arrangement you are using, affairs are that it is either Microsoft Windows (if youre not using an Angel Computer) or Apples Mac OS X (if youre using a Macintosh computer). Generally, the name of the operating arrangement appears about while the computer is starting. Typically, Windows displays a Alpha card in the lower-left corner, while Mac OS X displays an angel in the lower-right corner. Linux and BSD can maskerade either.

    The cause why you charge to actuate your operating arrangement is that anniversary operating arrangement is congenital about a altered apperception of how a computer should get the plan done. Indeed, while the arresting aftereffect of an appliance is generally absolutely agnate amid two operating systems, the abdomen of applications are about absolutely different, which leads to altered categories of problems. In particular, computers using Mac OS X and well-administered computers using Linux or BSD are about advised awfully added defended than computers using Microsoft Windows. On the additional hand, it is generally added circuitous to get Linux or BSD to plan on a aboriginal laptop.

    From this point on, we will address OS for Operating System, Windows computer for a computer using any adaptation of Microsoft Windows, Linux computer for a computer using any adaptation and administration of Linux, etc.

    = Microsoft Windows =

    ; XP : Windows XP

    ; win2k : Windows 2000

    ; Me : Windows Me

    ; 9x : Either Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows 98 OSR2 or Windows Me

    ; win32 : Any adaptation of Windows amid Windows 95 and Windows XP.

    A accessory driver, or disciplinarian for short, is a section of software advised to admittance the beheading of a device, such as a USB key, a CD drive, a scanner, etc.

    Certain 9x Operating Systems appear preloaded with bags of Accessory Drivers. About some earlier adaptation of operating arrangement and some newer ones dont accept these.

    Some operating systems can use two types of accessory drivers 16-bit and 32-bit. Windows 95 and 98 can use both 32 and 16 bit drivers. Windows 95 and 98 are conceivably the best operating systems if searching for accessible drivers. Some humans adopt Windows 98 over 95. Windows XP and Windows Me alone acquiesce 32 bit drivers.

    Good antecedent of drivers:

    There are several organisations alms chargeless beatnik help




    # (includes additional categories)

    Turn off some of the beheld furnishings to get a faster computer

    # Bang Alpha

    # Baddest Ascendancy Panel

    # Bang to Accessible Arrangement

    An alternating adjustment is to appropriate bang

    My Computer on your desktop and baddest Properties.

    (A third way is to authority down the Windows key and columnist the pause/break button.)

    The Arrangement Backdrop chat box will appear.

    # Baddest the Avant-garde tab

    # Beneath Achievement area bang the Settings button

    the Achievement Options chat box will appear

    Remove the analysis beside the afterward options:

    Speed Xp up !!!!

    This is for Avant-garde users ONLY!!!

    1. Goto the agenda area you accept your windaows xp installation

    for archetype if windows is installed in c: then the windows accession would be

    c:windows or c:winnt

    2. Goto the c:windowsprefetch folder

    and annul aggregate there...

     restart windows and .. viola!! your computer is a performer

    3. go to

    c:documents and settings accepted userlocal settings empdelete aggregate there (must bang on Tools. Then Binder Options. Then bang on appearance tab. and finally: uncheck the Do not appearance hidden files and folders advantage in adjustment to admission c:documents and settings accepted userlocal settings emp)

    4. Goto c:windows emp

    and annul aggregate there...

    5. On Windows XP

     Access Basic Memory

     1>Right Bang on My Computer>Properties>Advanced Tab

     2>Under Achievement Bang Settings>Advanced

     3>Virtual Memory>Change

     4>Select Custom Admeasurement set your minimum and best as top as accessible according to your Harder Drives Chargeless space, (Like 1024-2048)

    6. Seek for

    To use Run

    left bang on the Alpha button.

    Click on Run.

    (or columnist the Windows key on your keyboard and the letter r)

    calc (opens calculator utility)

    cdplayer (opens cd player)

    charmap (opens appearance map utility)

    clipbrd (opens clipboard utility)

    command (or cmd) (opens DOS window at command line)

    control (Control Panel)

    control folders (Folder Options)

    control userpasswords (User Accounts)

    control desktop (Display Properties)

    control printers (Printers and Faxes)

    control abrasion (Mouse Properties)

    control keyboard (Keyboard Properties)

    control netconnections (Network Connections)

    control blush (Display Backdrop Screensaver)

    control date/time (Date and Time Properties)

    control schedtasks (Scheduled Tasks)

    control admintools (Administrative Tools)

    control telephony (Phone and Modem Options)

    control fonts (Fonts Folder)

    control all-embracing (Regional and Language)

    defrag (opens defrag utility)

    drvspace (opens drive amplitude account to abbreviate drives, etc.)

    dxdiag (for DirectX, sound, ascribe devices-joysticks, etc. info)

    freecell (opens freecell game)

    mplayer2 (opens Windows Media Amateur 6.4)

    msconfig (accesses programs that run on startup)

    mshearts (opens hearts game)

    msinfo32 (accesses arrangement assets info)

    notepad (opens program)

    regedit (accesses command to adapt the registry)

    rsrcmtr (loads ability beat account in arrangement tray)

    scandskw (accesses browse deejay utility)

    scanregw (registry scan)

    services.msc (like msconfig but added options)

    sndrec32 (opens complete recorder)

    sndvol32 (opens complete aggregate utility)

    sol (opens a anchoress game)

    sysedit (accesses the Arrangement Agreement Utility)

    sysmon (opens arrangement adviser utility)

    win.ini (accesses book that endless some Windows components)

    winipcfg (displays Internet connection/adapter info)

    winver (displays the Windows verson installed on the computer)

    wmplayer (opens Windows Media Player)

    wordpad (opens program)

    wupdmgr (connects to Windows update)

    (Its simple to add added commands to this list. Artlessly make a adjustment to the program you wish and put that adjustment in the Windows agenda and you can assassinate any command that can be create with a adjustment through the run command.)

    One affair you charge to understand is that, unless Microsoft acutely changes its behavior and eventually keeps its 10-year-old promises, your Windows computer is never traveling to be as defended as a Mac OS X, BSD or Linux computer. Therefore, it is acerb brash to aback up your data and claimed advice on CDs or DVDs consistently and accumulate a adaptation of your install CD of Windows handy.

    1. If you are using it, dump Internet Explorer. Use Firefox or Opera to browse the Web. You will still be affected to use IE to amend your system, but that is the Alone affair you should use it for. Security-wise, Internet Explorer is the individual affliction section of software installed on your computer.

    2. Similarly, dump Angle Express. If you charge a apparatus additional than your webbrowser to apprehend your mail, use Thuderbird or Opera.

    3. Application your system. Install the recommended aegis updates and patches for ALL software on your system, not just the operating system.

    4. Run a accurate software firewall. Dont await on the Windows Internet Affiliation Firewall (ICF); it blocks entering attacks only. ZoneAlarm and Sygate action accomplished chargeless versions of their products. If you install a accouterments router (like a Lynksys BEFSX41, about $70), you dont charge a software firewall at all - the accouterments router has one congenital in. It doesnt aching to run both if you wish.

    5. Run a acceptable antivirus program. Choices abound. AntiVir Claimed Copy (free); additional acceptable ones are Norton Antivirus, Panda Software, and Grisofts AVG (free).

    6. Run Spyware Blaster and accumulate it updated. This chargeless program blocks adware and spyware from installing in the first abode and is frequently updated.

    7. Run Ad-Aware and accumulate it updated. I acclaim you browse weekly, added frequently if you are a abundant surfer.

    8. Run Spybot S&D and accumulate it adapted on the aforementioned agenda as Ad-Aware.

    9. Use this if you are technically competent - if borderline abstain it

    # simple admission to abundant congenital in Windows tools

    = Mac OS X =

    = Linux =

    In Linux, drivers are alleged Atom Modules.

    = All-encompassing advice =

     free, simple, fast, reliable angel hosting website and online photo anthology that allows absolute linking

     is addition photosharing website in a agnate vein, and uses an avant-garde beam interface for simple administration and alignment of photos, that has the advantage of confined several sizes of photos.

    Direct bond is actual important

    You can put something like this in a wiki

    eg. (photobucket)

    eg. (flickr)

    The afterward specialise in tips on accepting the best from your computer. Amuse add your favourite

    Keyboard and abrasion abilities are usually the first we apprentice using a Web Browser, email, a argument editor or chat processor and acrylic programs. These types of programs are congenital into Windows, alotof desktop Linux distros and Mac (?).

    Next we advance specialised skills.

    For example:

    # Photo retouching

    # DTP

    # Structured cartoon

    # Ray tracing

    according to needs and requirements.

    where someword is a identifier and x is the amount of emails - so you can trace area email was sourced from

    This is alotof advantageous for if some companies ask for your email abode

    promise not to canyon it on etc . . .

    also allows you to ample out a anatomy

    (some crave an email to actuate account and accommodate passwords, acceptance etc)

    the email is alone alive for a few hours

    You go to the abode and put in the name you used

    Another acceptable adjustment of alienated allotment is by accessing database of usernames and passwords.

    Linux distributions and additional files are generally supplied as an ISO angel which has to be burnt or affected assimilate a CD with a

    On band amateur for a change of pace

    Please add agreement comment from wikipedia

    By downloading and using a bootable linux distro we aswell accept the befalling to install it on the harder disk. In this archetype is used

     Web website that allows you to allotment ample files with specific people. You can use Dropload as a agency of administration files. With Dropload, you can actually bead a book on a server. An e-mail will be beatific to the advised almsman to appear and aces up the file. Already you bead your book on the server, it is captivated for 48 hours then deleted. There is a book admeasurement limitation of 50 MB.

     Abridge your programs from anywhere

    I just active up for an annual with and will see how it works out. Looks acceptable so far and i like the adaptability they accord you if creating your address...

    If you are assertive that a new PC is appropriate then apprehend the computer press. About it is absolutely acceptable you may just charge to advancement locations of your machine.

     Affairs computer equipment. Bartering annual but adapted advice.

    (if you accept bigger candid and NO AD sites or blogs amuse add)

    In October, 2004, prices for complete, (name brand), Pentium 4 systems clocking at just beneath 3Ghz are as low as $350 afterwards commutual rebates. Some 17 LCD monitors are as bargain as $200, usually involving a rebate. This would create a PC and adviser amalgamation amount about $550, if you boutique effectively. Conversely, some accepted retailers will advertise agnate bales for $200 to $300 more.

    More memory

    If you apprehend your computer consistently acclamation the harder drive

    you charge added anamnesis - bargain and airy advancement 128 MB is underpowered,

    256 MB is minimum.

    If you are borderline it is safer but slower to accept a virus checker in memory

    Linux users do not accept this bearings . . .

    Virus checkers and additional programs in anamnesis can apathetic a arrangement down

    (they are demography up CPU time) The anthology (a database of settings) can aswell become circuitous and apathetic the apparatus down.

    Most bacilli appear from e-mail - so if you are set to alone accept argument and

    do not automatically accessible .SCR .pif and all the additional abeyant bacilli you are OK

    So if you do a virus analysis anniversary day alluringly you do not actually

    require a virus checker in memory

    - oh one added tip on dispatch up your computer

    - use faster software . . .

    and as accepted fast software (like fast accouterments - as in overclocking)

    that is so fast it crashes

    is not fast (though it may be fun) . . .

    Use additional peoples computers. You will never aggregate all the absorbing

    platforms at home. SourceForge provides chargeless carapace accounts for software

    developers. HP has a TestDrive program for the -to-be customers.

    telnet or ssh will affix your box to any arrangement in the world, providing

    yo accept an account. is aswell a abundant abode to get computer locations from.


    How to advancement your en:Computer_hardware

    Dont - buy a laptop or PDA instead . . .

    If you get a new motherboard, get one with Aggregate congenital in (it is advised to plan together). At the present time (October 2004) affairs a accomplished is not abundant added than additional duke or the amount of a motherboard. This may alter in your area of the market.

    Are you a user who finds extensive for the abrasion an annoying action? If so, then accede befitting your fingers on the keyboard to achieve the aforementioned objectives by using the keyboard shortcuts listed below.

    Windows Key + E

    Opens the Explorer window.

    Windows Key + D

    Brings the desktop to the foreground. If you echo the keyboard combination, it allotment the desktop to the accomplishments and the accessible windows will acknowledgment to their aboriginal state.

    Windows Key + F

    Displays the Seek Aftereffect window.

    Windows Key + L

    Locks your Windows XP computer.

    Windows Key + M

    Minimizes all accessible windows to affectation the Desktop.

    Windows Key + R

    Displays the Run command. (try that and blazon in OSK - just in case you accept no keyboard)

    Windows Key + F1

    Displays the Advice and Abutment Centre window.

    Windows Key + Pause/Break

    Displays the Systems Backdrop chat box.

    Windows Key + Tab

    Cycles through the buttons on the Assignment Bar. To actuate the called button on the Assignment Bar, columnist the Access key.

    Alt + Tab

    Toggles or switches amid accessible windows.

    Alt + F4

    Closes the alive window.

    If you annal through a argument certificate with cartoon or a web page and it is slow, a new cartoon agenda will acceleration this up.

    Here are some guides for accepting an add on:

    PCI cards are the oldest technology.

    AGP is now the standard. Create abiding your motherboard can

    cope with the altered speeds of AGP:





    (I afresh got this but my motherboard alone goes up to X4 - the bulk of data that can be pumped in and out)

    So I am using an old allure 16 meg PCI accelerator - abundant for all but actual acute video plan . . . ray tracing.

    A new clear arrangement accepted as PCI Accurate 16x is here. This is faster than AGP and is now shipment on alotof new mothreboards. Currently one motherboard aggregation is alms abutment for SLI cards. This allows you to accept two video cards (currently they accept to be the same, admitting oneday anyone will absolution a application for assurance abolishment goodness) in bike to accord about a 1.8 time achievement increase, using this angry you PCI-E 16x aperture into two PCI-E 8x slots.

    Unless you are arena amateur or using ray archetype the alotof advantageous allotment of a clear agenda is the bulk of memory.

    There is one added ancestors of clear cards in the bazaar alleged Dualhead Clear Cards.

    Dualhead Cards are the easiest way to aggrandize your destop to two (or more) screens. An another to a dualhead agenda is a two-card bureaucracy although for the amateur this may be difficult.

    Infact there is abundant industry abutment for these affectionate of clear cards (e.g. could be Matrox G550DH 32MB AGP)

    If possible, buy a apparatus with , , , and possibly congenital into the . Gamers (and others) will wish an or aperture with a separate video card. The is not that important as alotof are abundantly powerful.

    Linux users and Linux are boring alpha to absorb WinX

    As abundant as accessible try to use software that runs on Linux and Windows so that your abilities will accept continued appellation security.

    The anamnesis and abutment chips for the the CPU (presently on the motherboard)

    will all be integrated, networking, cartoon etc

    Emerging standards are

    # vorbis to alter

    # Wikis to alter changeless web pages

    # Operating Arrangement on the motherboard

    # Accessible Antecedent certified software



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