#### Reference & Education Chemistry

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## lithium

:lith·i·um# The simplest , the lightest solid element, and the third lightest actinic aspect (symbol Li) with an of 3.# or additional affairs of lithium metal acclimated to amusement and s.element*: (let)*Kazakh: (litii)*Korean: (rityum)*Latin: lithium*Latvian: *Lithuanian: *Luxembourgish: lithium*Macedonian: (litium)*Malay: *Maltese: *: *Mongolian: (liti)*Norwegian: *Polish: *Portuguese: *Romanian: *Russian: (litij) *: *Serbian:*:Cyrillic: *:Latin: *Slovak: *Slovene: *Spanish: *Swedish: *Tamil: (littiyam)*Thai: (lithiam)*Turkish: *Ukrainian: (litij) *Uzbek: (litiy)*Vietnamese: , *Welsh: treatment for brainy disordersFor ancestry and added advice accredit to:http://elements.vanderkrogt.net/elem/li.html(A lot of the translations were taken from that website with permission from the author)...

*Read More*by user## carbon

:car·bon-->#(uncountable) The actinic aspect (symbol C) with an of 6.#(countable, informal) A area of .#(countable, informal) A .#A deposit ammunition that is create of admixed carbon such as or .#(ecology; uncountable) , in the ambience of and .***chemical element*Afrikaans: *Arabic: (karbu:n) *Armenian: (ats?atsin)*Belarusian: (vugljarod) *Bosnian: , *: *Bulgarian: (v?glerod) *: *Chinese:Simplified: (tan):Traditional: (taan4)*Croatian: *Danish: *Dutch: *Esperanto: *Finnish: *: *French: *Georgian: (na?sirbadi)*German: *Greek: (an?rakas) , (rare) (karvuno) *Gujarati: (karban)*Hebrew: (pakhman)*Hindi: (karban)*Icelandic: *: carbon*Italian: *Japanese: (???, tanso)*Kazakh: (komirtek)*Korean: (tanso)*Latvian:: *Luxembourgish: *Macedonian: (jaglerod)*Marathi: (karba)*Mongolian: (nuurstorogc)*Persian: (karbon)*Polish: *Portuguese: *Punjabi: (karabana)*Romanian: carbon *Russian: (uglerod) *Serbian:Cyrillic: :Roman: *Slovene: *Spanish: *Swedish: *Tamil: (karimam)*Telugu: (karbanam)*Thai...

*Read More*by user## potassium

# a soft, waxy, ablaze acknowledging that is never begin absolved in nature; an aspect (symbol K) with an of 19 and of 39.0983. The attribute is acquired from the Latin .*: *: *: (kaliumi)*German: *Greek: (kalion) *Hebrew: (asl?gan) *Hungarian: *Icelandic: *: potassium, *Irish: *Italian: *Japanese: (kariumu)*: *: (kalii)*Korean: (kallyum), (potasyum)*Latin: *Latvian: *Lithuanian: *: *Macedonian: (kalium) *Malay: *: *: *Mongolian: (kali)*Norwegian: *Persian: (potasim)*Polish: *Portuguese: *Romanian: , *Russian: (kalij) *: *Serbian: (kalijum) *Slovak: *Slovene: *Spanish: *Swedish: *: *Tamil: (vediyam)*Thai: (phothaetsiam)*Turkish: *Ukrainian: (kalij) *: (kalii)*Vietnamese: *Welsh: For ancestry and added advice accredit to:http://elements.vanderkrogt.net/elem/be.html(A lot of the translations were taken from that website with permission from the author)****, *...

*Read More*by user## oxygen

# A actinic (symbol O) with an of 8 and of 15.9994.# An atom of this element.# Atomic oxygen (O2), a , gas at allowance temperature.# A admixture of oxygen and additional gases, administered to a accommodating to advice him or her to .gas*: (ottek)*Korean: (sanso)*Kurdish: *Latin: *Latvian: *Lithuanian: *: *Macedonian: (kislorod)*Malay: *Maltese: *: *: *: (oksijana)*Mongolian: (khuciltorogc)*Norwegian: *: *: *Persian: (oksizhen)*Polish: *: Port. , Braz. *Punjabi: (aksijana)*: *Romanian: *Russian: (kislorod) *: *: *Serbian: () *Slovak: *Slovenian: *Spanish: *: *Swedish: *: *: (okcican)*: (Amlajani)*Thai: (oksichen)*Turkish: *Ukrainian: (kisen’)*: (kislorod)*Vietnamese: *Welsh: atom of oxygen*Japanese: , ?? (??????, sanso genshi)molecular oxygenmixture of gases administered medically* if acclimated as a For ancestry and added advice accredit to:http://elements.vanderkrogt.net/elem/o.html(A lot of the translations were taken from that website with permission from the author)*...

*Read More*by user## sodium

# A soft, waxy, ablaze acknowledging metal that is never begin absolved in nature, and a actinic aspect (symbol Na) with an of 11 and of 22.989770.*Armenian: (natrium)*Basque: *Belarusian: (natryj) *Bosnian: *: , *Bulgarian: (natrij) *: *Chinese: / (na)*: *Croatian: *Czech: *Danish: *Dutch: *Esperanto: *Estonian: *: *Finnish: *French: sodium *: *: *: *Georgian: (natriumi)*German: *Greek, Modern: (natrio) *Hebrew: (natran)*Hungarian: *Icelandic: *Indonesian: *: sodium, *Irish: *Italian: *Japanese: (natoriumu)*: *Kazakh: (natrii)*Korean: (nateuryum), (sodyum)*Latin: *Latvian: *Lithuanian: *Luxembourgish: *Macedonian: (natrium) *Malay: *Maltese: *: *Mongolian: (natri)*Norwegian: *Polish: *Portuguese: *Romanian: , *Russian: (natrij) *: *Serbian: () *Slovak: *Slovene: *Spanish: *Swedish: *Tajik: *Tamil: (uvarmam)*Thai: (sodiam)*Turkish: *Ukrainian: (natrij) *Uzbek: (natriy)*Vietnamese: *Welsh: For ancestry and added advice accredit to:http://elements.vanderkrogt.net/elem/na.html(A lot of th...

*Read More*by user## nitrogen

:ni·tro·gen# A actinic aspect (symbol N) with an of 7 and of 14.0067.# Atomic nitrogen (N2), a , gas at allowance temperature.*Mongolian: (azot)*Norwegian: nitrogen*Polish: *Portuguese: Port. , Braz. *Romanian: *Russian: (azot) *: *Serbian: () *Slovak: *: *Spanish: *Swedish: *: *Tamil: (naitaracan)*Telugu: (natrajani)*Thai: (naitrochen)*Turkish: *Ukrainian: (azot) *: (azot)*Vietnamese: *Welsh: nitrogenFor ancestry and added advice accredit to:http://elements.vanderkrogt.net/elem/be.html(A lot of the translations were taken from that website with permission from the author)****,...

*Read More*by user## hydrogen

|}From + .# The est (symbol H) with an of 1 and of 1.00794.# Atomic hydrogen (H2), a , and at allowance temperature.*, **, *, *, *, *****, ******: *Albanian: *Arabic: (haidrojin) *Armenian: *Bosnian: *: *Bulgarian: (vodorod) *: *Chinese: / (qing)*Croatian: *Czech: *Danish: , hydrogen*Dutch: *Esperanto: *Estonian: *Finnish: *French: *: *Georgian: (ts’qalbadi)*German: *Greek: (ydrogono) *Hungarian: *Hebrew: (meiman)*Icelandic: *Indonesian: *: *Italian: *Japanese: (???, suiso)*Korean: (suso)*Latin: *Latvian: *Lithuanian: *Luxembourgian: *Macedonian: (vodorod) *Malaysian: *: *: *Norwegian: hydrogen*Polish: *Portuguese: (Pt.), (Br.)*Romanian: *Russian: (vodorod) *Serbian:*:Cyrillic: *:Roman: *Slovak: *Slovene: *Spanish: *Swedish: *Tamil: (aitaracan)*Telugu: (udajani)*Thai: (haidrochen)*Turkish: *Ukrainian: (voden’)*Uzbek: (vodorod)* if acclimated as a ***----hydrogen# hydrogen----hydrogen# hydrogen...

*Read More*by user## adamant

iren, isen, , from a aged Germanic word, affiliated to , anger#(uncountable) A actinic accepting 26, and attribute Fe. #(countable) A or create of , which is ed and then acclimated to calefaction to something else; alotof generally a of metal adapted with a and accepting a , almost , which is acrimonious and acclimated to s from , and now usually absolute an heating .#(in plural irons) .#(slang) a #(uncountable) A aphotic adumbration of the / .#(; beneath from , balladry with ; countable, offensive) A macho .******, **********, ***********************, **********, *, *, ************************************, *, *********chemical element*: *: *Albanian: *Arabic: (hadi:d) *Armenian: (erkat‘)*: *Basque: *Belarusian: (zaleza) *: *: *: *: *: *: *Bosnian: *: *: , / *Bulgarian: (zeljazo) *: *: *: *: *: (talugisgi)*Chinese: , (tie)*: *: *Croatian: *Czech: *Danish: *: *: *Dutch: *: *: *Estonian: *: *Finnish: *French: *: *: *: *: *Georgian: (rkina)*German: *: *Greek, Modern: (in chemistry), (in m...

Tags: metal

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## tin

#(uncountable) A , , lic , aggressive to , with diminutive amount 50 and attribute Sn.#(British; countable) An closed container, create of tin or addition metal, acclimated to bottle food.#(countable) A metal pan acclimated for baking, roasting, etc.#:muffin tin#:roasting tinelement*Maltese: *: *Mongolian: (tsagaan)*Norwegian: *Polish: *Portuguese: *: *Romanian: , *Russian: (olovo) , (stannum) *: *Serbian: () *Slovak: *Slovenian: *Spanish: *Swedish: *Tajik: *Tamil: (takaram)*Thai: (dibuk)*Tok Pisin: tin*Turkish: *Ukrainian: (olovo) *Uzbek: (kalay)*Vietnamese: *Welsh: airtight container*Chinese: (guantou)*Dutch: , *Finnish: , *French: , *German: , , , , *Italian: , *Japanese: (????, kanzume)*Korean: (kkangtong)*Polish: *Portuguese: *Russian: (zestjanka) *Slovene: *Tok Pisin: tinmetal pan*Dutch: (for baking), (for cakes)*German: (for baking), (for cakes), (for cakes)*Portuguese: *Russian: (zest’) *: , boestou , (2)*: , (2)*: (2,3)*: ( de) (2,3)*: (3)#Made of tin.made of tin*: *Bulgarian:...

*Read More*by user## nickel

#(uncountable) A with an of 28 and Ni.#(US, Canada; countable) A 5 s.#(US slang; sometimes the nickel or the hot nickel) Artery 5, a artery that runs forth the west bank of the Affiliated States.element*Greek, Modern: (nikelio) *Hebrew: (nikl)*Hungarian: *Icelandic: *Indonesian: *: nickel*Irish: *Italian: , *Japanese: (nikkeru)*: *: (nikel)*Korean: (nikel)*Latvian: *Lithuanian: *: nickel*Macedonian: (nikel) *Malay: *: *: *Mongolian: (nikel)*Norwegian: *Polish: *Portuguese: *Romanian: *Russian: (nikel’) *: *Serbian: () *Slovak: *Slovene: *Spanish: *Swedish: nickel*: (nikel)*Tamil: (van-veLLi)*Thai: (nikkoen)*Turkish: *Ukrainian: (nikel’) *: (nikel)*Vietnamese: *Welsh: coin*Chinese: (wu fen qian)*French: de s *: nickel*Italian: di *Portuguese: For ancestry and added advice accredit to:http://elements.vanderkrogt.net/elem/ni.html(A lot of the translations were taken from that website with permission from the author)***----nickel #nickel (metal)**...

*Read More*by user## Mathematics for allure Tests and Exams

Antecedent affiliate - This analysis was already acclimated to adviser the ample acquirements of university chemists at the end of the 1st year and is advised to check, somewhat lightly, arange of abilities in alone 50 minutes. It contains a admixture of what are perceived to beboth simple and difficult questions so as to accord the brand a acceptable abstraction of the acceptance algebra abilities and even whether they can do the abominable affiliation by parts.----(1) Break the afterward blueprint for xx^2+2x-15 = 0It factorises with 3 and 5 so : (x+5)(x-3) = 0 thereforethe roots are -5 and +3, not 5 and -3!----(2) Break the afterward blueprint for x2x^2-6x -20 = 0Divide by 2 and get x^2-3x -10 = 0.This factorises with 2 and 5 so : (x-5)(x+2) = 0 thereforethe roots are 5 and -2.----(3) Simplify ln w^6 - 4ln wFirstly 6ln w - 4ln w so it becomes 2ln w.----(4) What islog_ frac 1 64 = 8 x 8 so it aswell equals 2^3 x 2^3 i.e. frac 1 is 2^,therefore the acknowledgment is -6.----(5) Accumul...

*Read More*by user## A-level Allure OCR 5.1.1 Atoms, Molecules and Stoichiometry

In allure all diminutive masses are abstinent in diminutive accumulation units, the abridgement is amu, the assemblage attribute is u. The all-embracing agreed accepted is that 12 amus is the exact weight of authentic isotopic Carbon-12, so all masses are about to ^C,. This arrangement of about masses was originally devised by John Dalton.Relative Diminutive Mass: The diminutive accumulation is the abounding boilerplate of all accustomed occurring isotopes. The attribute is A_rIsotopic Mass: The accumulation of an isotope of an element.Molecular Mass: The sum of all the alone masses in a atomic formula. The attribute is M_r.Formula Mass: The sum of all the alone masses in a ionic formula.A accumulation spectrometer is an apparatus that chemists use to actuate the agreement of an molecule. It can aswell actuate the percent agreement of an element. It works by a sample of a aspect is vaporized. Then the aspect is ionized afterwards it passes through an dispatch chamber. There a alluring ...

*Read More*by user## Amoebic Allure Basal concepts of amoebic allure Diminutive anatomy Admixture

Admixture refers to the accumulation of the orbitals of two or added covalently affirmed atoms. Depending on how some chargeless electrons a accustomed atom has and how some bonds it is forming, it will blend in a assertive manner. The electrons in the s and the p orbitals amalgamate in assertive amenities to anatomy the bonds. In particular, for alotof of the atoms of absorption in amoebic allure (which anatomy at alotof four bonds), the added chargeless electrons an atom has, the beneath p appearance the alloyed band will have, because the chargeless electrons will yield up some amplitude of the p orbitals.It is simple to actuate the admixture of an atom accustomed a Lewis structure. First, you calculation the amount of pairs of chargeless electrons and the amount of sigma bonds (single bonds). Do not calculation bifold bonds, back they do not affect the admixture of the atom. Already the absolute of these two is determined, the admixture arrangement is as follows: Sigma Bonds + Elec...

*Read More*by user## Mathematics for allure Trigonometry

Antecedent affiliate - The sin rule a b c ---- = ---- = ---- sinA sinB sinC The Cosine Rule 2 2 2 c = a + b - 2 a b cosC sinA tanA = ---- cosAcos^2 heta + sin^2 heta = 1Remember this is a aftereffect of Pythagoras assumption wherethe breadth of the hypotenuse is 1.sin ( heta + phi ) = sin heta cos phi + cos heta sin phicos ( heta + phi ) = cos heta cos phi - sin heta sin phiThe aberration of two angles can calmly be generated by puttingphi = -phi and canonizing sin -phi = - sin phi andcos -phi = cos phi.Similarly the bifold bend formulae are generated by induction. an ( heta + phi ) is a little added complicated but can be generatedif you can handle the fractions!The proofs are in some textbooks but as a chemist you do not charge to knowhow to do this but you do charge the results.Identities and equations attending actual similar, two things connectedby an equals sign. An indentity about is a anamnesis aid of a mathematicalequivalence and can be proved. An blueprint represents...

Tags: angle, remember, angles

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## Mathematics for allure Vectors

Antecedent affiliate - Imagine you create a abuse adventure from Doncaster to Bristol, from whereyou biking up the West of the country to Manchester. Actuality you break a day,travelling the next morning to Glasgow, then beyond to Edinburgh.At the end of a canicule plan you acknowledgment to Doncaster. Mathematicallythis adventure could be represented by vectors, (in 2 ambit becausewe are collapsed earthers on this scale). At the end of the 2nd journey(D-B) + (B-M) you are alone a abbreviate ambit fromDoncaster, 50 afar at 9.15 on the clockface. Abacus two added vectors,(journeys) takes you to Edinburgh, (about 250 afar at 12.00).Completing the adventure leaves you at a aught agent abroad from Doncaster,i.e. all the vectors in this bankrupt aisle add to zero.Mathematically we usually use 3 dimensional vectors over the 3cartesian admonition x, y and z.It is best consistently to use the accepted appropriate handed axeseven admitting the additional way annular is appropriately accurate if...

*Read More*by user## Computational allure Geometry enhancement

Computational chemistry/Geometry optimization Antecedent affiliate - Important appearance to apprehension are that the abeyant is steeper on the close sideand shallower abnormally as it moves out appear dissociation.This abstraction is continued to polyatomic molecules area we accept a potentialenergy apparent in n dimensions.(n is 3N-6 area N is the amount of atoms. The -6 comes from the translationsand rotations of the molecule, the atomic accordance refered to in the MOPACprintouts.)The basal of the abeyant able-bodied is at the calm band length.In this arena the abeyant action resembles a parabola E = frac 1 2 f r ^ + cOptimization of the geometry of a diatomic is atomic if we can calculatethe absolute activity we chase it downwards as a action of capricious r byNewton like procedures until we accept credibility either ancillary of the minimum.From this position we can accumulate bisecting the breach and usingquadratic departure until the appropriate accurateness is reached.A all-i...

Tags: alpha, programs, three, position, system, energy, accuracy, force, degrees, carbon, paper, centre, group, optimization, angles, handed, potential

*Read More*by userTags: alpha, programs, three, position, system, energy, accuracy, force, degrees, carbon, paper, centre, group, optimization, angles, handed, potential

## Mathematics for allure Matrices and Determinants

Antecedent affiliate - If we accept 2 equations of the anatomy y = x + we may accept a set of accompanying equations.Suppose two circuit of drinks are bought in a cafe, one annular is 4 halvesof orange abstract and 4 packets of crisps. This comes to 4 pounds 20.The thirstier drinkers at addition tablebuy 4 pints of orange abstract and alone 1 packet of crisps and this comes to 6 pounds 30.So we accept :4.20 = 2 x + 4 yand6.30 = 4 x + yi.e.y = frac 4 - frac 2 4 x ~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~y = 6.30 - 4 xIf you artifice these equations they will be accompanying trueat x=1.5 and y = 0.30.Notice that if the two circuit of drinks are 2 pints and 2 packetsof crisps and 3 pints and 3 packets of crisps we cannotsolve for the prices! This corresponds to two alongside straightlines which never intersect.If we accept the equations:3 x + 4 y = 43 x + 2 y = 1If these are accompanying true we can acquisition a different band-aid for bothx and y.By adding the 2 equations a new blueprint is created area...

*Read More*by user## Mathematics for allure Some Advantageous Aspects of Calculus

Antecedent affiliate - Many textbooks go through the able approach of adverse and affiliation by using limits.As chemists it is accessible to reside after alive this so we ability able-bodied not accept it asan examinable topic. About actuality is how we differentiate sinfrom 1st principles.frac y} x} =left( frac y} x}
ight)_~~~~ delta x
ightarrow 0} = frac = frac = frac - frac + frac cos xAs sin delta x = delta x for baby x this announcement is cos x.Similarly for cos hetafrac y} heta} = frac = frac = frac - frac - frac This is according to - sin heta .You may be acquainted that you can fit a boxlike to 3 points, a cubicto 4 points, a quartic to 5 etc. If you differentiate a functionnumerically by accepting two ethics of the action delta x afar you getan approximation to frac y} x} by amalgam a triangleand the acclivity is the tangent. There is a advanced triangle and a astern triangle dependingon the assurance of delta x. These are the advanced and astern differentiationapproxim...

Tags: sigma

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## Mathematics for allure Some Algebraic Examples activated to Allure

Antecedent affiliate - The all-over x is not consistently the capricious as you will allknow by now.One problem ambidextrous with absolute applications is allocation out whichsymbols are the variables and which are constants.(If you attending actual anxiously at professionally set equationsin argument books you should acquisition that there are rules that constantsare set in Roman type, i.e. beeline belletrist and variablesin italics. Do not await on this as it is generally ignored.)Here are some examples area the capricious is conventionallysomething additional than x.i) The Euler Angles which are acclimated in rotationare commonly alpha, eta and gamma not the moreusual bend names heta and phi.The circling cast for the final aberration in the commonest Euler definitiontherefore looks like this.egincos (gamma) & sin (gamma) & 0 -sin (gamma) & cos (gamma) & 0...

*Read More*by user## Mathematics for allure Circuitous Numbers

Antecedent affiliate - The equation:x^2 + 6 x + 13 = 0Does not factorisex = -3 pm sqrt sqrt after circuitous numbers does not exist. About the amount i=sqrtbehaves absolutely like any additional amount in algebra after any anomolies, allowingus to break this problem.The solutions are -3pm2i.2i is an abstract number. -3-2i is a circuitous number.Two circuitous numbers (a,b) = a + ib are added by (a,b) + (c,d) =(a+c,b+d) = a+c+i(b+d).Subtraction is obvious: (a,b) - (c,d) = (a-c,b-d). (a,b) . (c,d) = ac + i ( ad + bc ) - bdDivision can be formed out as an exercise. It requires(c+id) (c-id) as a accepted denominator. This is c^2-(id)^2,(difference of two squares), and is c^2 + d^2.This meansfrac = frac In convenance circuitous numbers acquiesce one to abridge the mathematics of magnetismand angular drive as able-bodied as commutual the amount system.There is an apparant one to one accord amid the cartesian x-y planeand the circuitous numbers, x + iy.This is alleged an Argand diagram.The ac...

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