Computers & Technology Robotics

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Absolute Apple Sensors

 : : Absolute Apple Sensors----This area covers the capacity on sensor inperfection and how these apparatus behave in the absolute world.There is no such affair as a ambit sensor. period. Those apparatus frequently alleged ambit sensor or agnate names admeasurement something and abstract ambit advice out of that. This abstraction works appealing acceptable in accurate circumstances, but are abandoned in some others. The key to successfuly barometer e.g. a distance, is knowing, exactly, what your sensors measures and how alien factors access the measurement. This doesnt beggarly you just charge to understand how authentic the sensor is, it agency you charge to understand what allotment of physics is used, and what the laws of physics say about that.Ill awning some of the alotof frequently acclimated sensors and what laws of physics administer to those. Im not traveling actual abysmal into answer physics, there are bigger sources for that (a wiki physics book for example), just abundant t... Read More by user

LEGO Robots

 [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LEGOs LEGO] accept created the [http://mindstorms.lego.com Robotics Apparatus System], which is about a LEGO set which may be use to body and ancestor apprentice designs.The capital apparatus provided are,These can be acclimated with Adjustment Lego such as cogs, axels, apparatus and additional apparatus to body analytic circuitous systems.= Interface =The apprentice interfaces to a PC through the RCX ambassador using either an [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RS-232 RS-232] consecutive anchorage and cable, or [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Infrared#Communications Infra Red (IR) consecutive port]. The program can be accomplished through the consecutive affiliation in absolute time or downloaded to and stored on the RCX controller. Downloading and autumn the program allows the apprentice to run apart after the charge to be tethered to the computer.= Programming and Software =Lego accommodate their own [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GUI GUI] Software [http://mind... Read More by user

Encoders

 : : : Encoders----=Encoders=Encoders are disks army on the arbor of e.g. a motor in such a way that they about-face forth with said axle. There are individual approach encoders which accept a individual annular arrangement of slots. These are frequently acclimated to admeasurement the acceleration of a axle. There are aswell encoder with assorted channels, generally with arrangement afterward a specific code, e.g. Blah code. These Encoder are acclimated to ascertain a position rather than a speed. =Incremental Encoders=These Encoder charge a individual IR-LED and IR-phototransitor brace to admeasurement speed. A additional brace placed so that if the first one is in the average of a marking, the additional one avalanche on an bend of a marking, allows you to admeasurement acceleration and direction. This methode is frequently acclimated in computer mice. Unless there is a added appearance and IR-LED / IR-phototransistor pair, these encoders accept no alpha position.=Position Encoders=T... Read More by user

Robotics Concordance Of Robotics Analogue

 acceleration-level - Algebraic formulations alive with the change in collective speeds with account to time. Amalgam accelerations alert provides displacements. See position-level and velocity-level.analytical methods - Absolutely algebraic methods that do not crave iteration. autonomous - Operating after pre-programmed behaviors and after administration from humans. biomimetic - Artful accustomed biologyclosed-form - A problem conception that does not crave abundance for its solution.conservative motion - A aisle area both the end-effector and the joints again chase their aforementioned corresponding trajectories.degrees of abandon - The amount of absolute variables in the system. Anniversary collective in a consecutive apprentice represents a amount of freedom.dexterity - A admeasurement of the robots adeptness to chase circuitous paths.direct seek - A adjustment of analytic problems numerically using sets of balloon solutions to adviser a search. The seek is absolute because it does... Read More by user

Burden Sensors

 : : : Burden and Sound----Measuring burden is usefull for acclimate forcasting, and if your apprentice has aeriform or hydralic components, for e.g. accountability detection.Sound is a appropriate anatomy of pressure. Sounds are variations in air burden and can accept some intresting functionality in a robot. E.g. swissle or duke applause detection.Pressure is the force activated per assemblage area.It is admeasurement in newton per beat square.Unit of burden is newton per beat square.There are some methods of barometer pressure.One adjustment includes the use of diaphragm.Diaphragm is use as a burden sensor,it is create up of some metal if burden is activated it aggrandize and produces a voltage that is propertional to the pressure. Able BY:SYED WAQAS ALAM... Read More by user

Thermal Sensors

 : : : Thermal Sensors----Temperature can be an intresting constant to measure. The temperature of the ambience ability not be actual usefull for a adaptable robot, the temperature of a motor or array aback is.The alotof acclimated units for temperature are Degrees Celsius, Kelvin and Degrees Fahrenheit .This temperature calibration was ascertain about water. It defines 0C as the temperature on which baptize freezes at accepted atmosferic pressure. 100C is authentic as the temperature at which baptize boils.Conversion: To Fahrenheit: Tc To Kelvin: Tc + 273,15Kelvin is a temperature calibration with one authentic temperature: 0 Kelvin is the everyman accessible temperature, which is about -273,15C. An access of 1 Kelvin has the aforementioned admeasurement as an access of 1C.The Kelvin (note its not degrees Kelvin) temperature calibration is acclimated in science and engineering, alotof formulas absolute temperature crave Kelvin, unless it involves temperature differences, then one c... Read More by user
Tags: water, temperature, degrees, thermal, defined, sensors, scale

Audio

 : Components: Audio----=Overview=The audio apparatus of a apprentice are those locations that acquiesce it to create sounds, eiter for ball purposes or to back information. This can be done through simple complete chips: bargain chip circuits which acquiesce assertive sounds to be played with actual little alien components. These are frequently acclimated in toys.Other agency are anamnesis chips autumn samples, a DAC and an amplifier, an MP3 amateur or articulation synthesiser software on a carriageable PC.=The Abstract Edge=Generating simple complete furnishings is easy. All you charge is an oscillator in the ambit 20 to 20.000Hz, an amplifier and a speaker. Such a ambit can accomplish any accent that a animal can hear. By alteration the abundance of the oscillator you change the emited tone. Qbasic has a command that does just this: sound. Complete let you specific a few constant with the alotof important getting the frequency. By alteration this abundance over time simple complete a... Read More by user

Modular and fractal Robots

 : : Modular and fractal Robots----A apprentice is about advised for one accurate activity, or at best a few carefully accompanying activities. This of advance isnt the ideal bearings as some jobs crave a ample amount of actual differend activities. For example, architecture the walls of a abode and installing accouterments and electricity crave actual altered accoutrement and techniques. In convenance this agency youll end up designing either several altered robots or one actual complicated one. Modular robotics is one acknowledgment to such problems. Modular robots abide of a amount of absolute parts, usually cubes, which can move and affix themselves in some altered ways. Anniversary of the cubes accept their own ability accumulation and intelligence and can accept specific tools. If a problem is fed to its computer, it analyses it and connects the cubes in such a way that it can break the problem.Idealy such a apprentice would abide of a actual ample amount of actual baby identical ... Read More by user
Tags: different, modular, robots

Grippers

 : Components: Grippers----= Overview =A gripper is a basic of the apprentice acclimated to dispense an item apart from the apprentice itself. This can be a brawl it needs to aces up, or the bedraggled socks it was programmed for to acquisition and actuate of. Grippers is in some varieties alignment from simple a thong-like architecture to circuitous arms.How circuitous your robots gripper has to be depends on what its declared to do with it. Acrimonious up a brawl requires a differend access than acrimonious up socks.= Affectionate of grippers =Grippers are frequently modeled afterwards tools, machines or the animal hand. The best abaft a gripper doesnt alter abundant from the best of the apparatus on a excavating machine, forklift, crane or additional machine.= beat =Image:Scoop.png|Flat ScoopImage:Raised scoop.png|Raised ScoopScoops are actual simple grippers. These can be flat, collapsed with aloft edges or added complicated shapes. These grippers are easely to ascendancy as they ca... Read More by user

Concrete Sensors

 : : : Concrete Sensors----Tactile sensors admeasurement force activated to them. This can be in an on-off appearance or as a added or beneath authentic measurement.=Simple Acquaintance Sensor=One of the alotof simple sensors accessible are acquaintance sensors or bonanza switches. These sensors use some anatomy of bonanza to columnist a button if the apprentice comes in acquaintance with addition object. A able-bodied body bonanza about-face is a actual reliable sensor, but back these ascertain by touching, theyre not actual applied on fast or abundant robots. One key point on bonanza switches (or any affectionate of automated switches) is that they dont accord a apple-pie arresting if closed. The acquaintance tends to animation a bit.Whiskers use the aforementioned assumption as bumperswitches, about they accord a hardly beyond apprehension ambit and so abstain the charge to bang adjoin additional objects. One accepted architecture is to arise the barb through a annular angle wire. If... Read More by user
Tags: sensors, contact

Robotics cachet

 This page shows the book appellation timberline and how abundant of it is completed(Grading reflects the accompaniment of the commodity and all of its branches, unless addition brand is accounting there.)=An Addition to Robotics==Design Basics==Physical Construction==Components==Computer Control=**Computers ***External Ports ****Serial Port****Parallel Port****USB****IEEE 1394: Firewire, i.link, Lynx****Keyboard Connector****Ethernet***Internal Ports ****ISA****PCI****AGP****PCI Express***Wireless ****IRDA ****WiFi ****Bluetooth **Microcontrollers **Remote Ascendancy ***Wired Limited Control****Issues With Active Limited Control*****Limited Range*****Mechanical Issues With Cables****Methodes***Wireless Limited Control****IR****RF****Speech Recognition****Sound**Networks ***standards****IC****RS232****RS422****RS485****CAN****1wire=Sensors=*Environment Sensors**Object Sensors***Computer Eyes ***Tactile sensors***Distance Sensors ****IR*****reflection*****Triangulation*****Line detectio... Read More by user

Architecture Techniques

 : Concrete Construction: Architecture Techniques----=Working with Metals=Place the bowl amid 2 board boards in a vise. Let the band area you wish the actual to angle bout up with the bound of the boards. Use a bang to angle the plate.=Working with Plastics=Thin plastics can be cut with a aciculate account knife, thicker actual can be sawed.Drilling artificial requires a apathetic acceleration drill. Appropriate drills for plastics are abundant bigger as metal assignment can couldcause the actual to crack.Large holes and grooves can be create the aforementioned way as in metal.Use a acrylic stripper to calefaction up the plastic, angle it and let it air-conditioned down. Angle can be done by hand.... Read More by user

Advice Sensors

 : : Advice Sensors----=Datatransmission channels=Being able to forward data to and from your apprentice can be a actual accessible addition. There are 2 frequently acclimated methods for wireless datatransmission: IR (InfraRed) and RF (RadioFrequency). Both methods accept their own advantages and disadvantages. Which to use depends on several factors.IR datatransmission best accepted archetype is the TVs limited control. Using IR on a apprentice is absolutely simple and actual cheap. The disadvantage of IR is that its bound to line-of-sight transmission. RF are able-bodied accepted in radio controlled cars. RF is added big-ticket than IR, but doesnt has the line-of-sight limitation. These canicule there are complete RF modems accessible which can be affiliated to a apprentice after abundant (or even any) added components. Although accessible architecture your own RF advice modules isnt advisable. There are austere laws about which frequencies you can use and with how abundant ability y... Read More by user

Limited Ascendancy

 : Computer Control: : Limited Control----Remote ascendancy is about authoritative a apprentice (or any additional cyberbanking device) from a distants, either with or after a wire.Remote ascendancy methodes can be breach into two catagories: wireless and wired. =Wired Limited Control=Wired limited ascendancy or tethered ascendancy can be the appropriate way to interface a computer with a anchored robot. For adaptable robots the cable can become a accountability for the robot.Many of the automated issues of cables can be bargain by using attenuate cables with as little conductors as possible. Idealy such a cable would accept alone 3 or 4 conductors: Ground, ability and one or 2 arresting wires. See for sending assorted signals through as little affairs as possible.By using a cable you get about the problem of abundant batteries. The apprentice can be powered by an AC-outlet. Addition account of a binding is the adeptness to calmly use a PC to ascendancy the robot.=Wireless Limited Contr... Read More by user
Tags: cable, wireless, building, network, control, limited, receiver, available, model

Mapping

 : Navigation: : Mapping ----To acquisition routes calmly a apprentice has to understand its surroundings. Maps can be actual accessible for this. Either the apprentice has the anamnesis and accoutrement for it and draws its own map, gets its map in beforehand or get a fractional map (e.g. alone walls) and adds the additional obstacles to it itself.Drawing a map has 2 above issues:A thirth accessory affair is memory. On a apprentice body after a computer anamnesis is bound and autumn an absolute map can be next to impossible.If you accept the anamnesis the map can be stored in altered ways:Implenting these structures on a PC is analytic easy, about amalgam them in a bound enviroment as a microcontroller is a austere challenge.... Read More by user

Localization

 : Navigation: : Localization ----Localization involves one question: Area is the apprentice now?Although a simple question, answering it isnt as easy, as the acknowledgment is differend depending on the characteristics of your robot. Localization technics that plan accomplished on an alfresco apprentice wouldnt plan actual acceptable or even at all for an calm robot. All localization technics accept to accommodate 2 pieces of information: The first could be in the anatomy of Cartesian or Arctic coordinates. The closing as compas headings. =Current Position=The accepted position of a apprentice can be bent in several actual altered ways:Dead reckoning uses odometry to admeasurement how far the apprentice moves. Trigonometry and the equations of kinematics are all that is bare to account its new position.This adjustment has 2 flaws:Dead reckoning is generally acclimated with additional methods to access their accuracy.On ample terrains GPS can accommodate added or beneath authentic coord... Read More by user
Tags: position, sensor, sensors

Pneumatics Hydraulics

 : Components: : Pneumatics & Hydraulics----Pneumatic and hydraulic systems are actuators which accommodate beeline movement. Hydraulic systems, especially, can aftermath acutely top forces.=Pneumatic systems=The aeriform actuator is alleged a cylinder. The agent rod (the dejected line) moves in and out of the butt (black) if pressurized air flows in the cylinder. (The red curve are the two connections.) The force a butt applies: F = p·ANote: the apparent breadth of the rod ancillary of the agent is abate than the additional side.There are several altered types of cylinders:... Read More by user

Ambit Sensors

 : : : Ambit Sensors----=IR=IR ambit sensors are one of the alotof acclimated ambit sensors. They abatement in 3 categories:(short range. not added than 2 - 3cm)This blazon uses an IR-LED and IR-diode (or phototransistor). If an item is abutting to the sensor it reflects the ablaze emitted by the LED to the IR-diode. Using articulate IR-light (A) and clarification (B) the ascribe arresting of the IR-diode leads to bigger after-effects as this blocks (much of) additional IR-light.There are ICs that accommodate both a modulator, IR-diode and filter-circuit.(larger range. about 10 - 30cm)e.g. Aciculate has a ancestors of sensors that use this assumption for barometer distance. They abide of an IR-LED and an IR-sensitive LDR strip. Accumulated with build-in optical lenses the reflected beams position on the LDR depends on how far the item is.Similar bureaucracy as the absorption IR-sensor, but aimed downwards to ascertain curve on the ground. This sensor makes use of the aberration in absor... Read More by user
Tags: light, sensor, distance, sound, sensors, object

Acknowledgment Sensors

 : : Acknowledgment Sensors----The way in which actuators accomplish is bent by the aggregate of several factors.The robots ascendancy arrangement sends the actuator some array of ascendancy signal, and assorted factors of the ambiance affect what happens for any accustomed ascendancy signal.Feedback sensors are acclimated to ascertain the actuators achievement so that the ascendancy arrangement can actual for alien factors.For example, some robots are propelled advanced by auto affiliated to DC motors.The ascendancy arrangement specifies the bulk of ability that should be activated to the motors to create them turn, but their acceleration is aswell afflicted by the bulk of amount on the motor.In adjustment for the apprentice to biking at a connected speed, it is all-important to accept a sensor that determines how fast the apprentice is moving, and adjusts the ability akin to the motors as needed.There are several accepted kinds of acknowledgment sensor that are used:... Read More by user

Computer Eyes

 : : : Computer Vision----This page should altercate some simple computer eyes techniques applicative to robotics, as able-bodied as bond to the computer eyes wikibook, already it existsA agenda camera periodically allotment a cast of vectors.Each of these vectors is alleged a pixel and represents a specific color.If the cast is displayed with anniversary corpuscle abounding in with the agnate color, it creates a account of the arena from the point of appearance of the camera.A acreage of abstraction accepted as computer eyes has formed about searching for patterns in matrices of this blazon that accord to assertive objects, such as faces.For a absolute overview of computer eyes see:CVonline: The Evolving, Distributed, Non-Proprietary, On-Line Abstract of Computer Eyes http://homepages.inf.ed.ac.uk/rbf/CVonline/Image Processing Acquirements Resourceshttp://homepages.inf.ed.ac.uk/rbf/HIPR2/... Read More by user

 

 

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