Computers & Technology Electricity

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Bonding jumper

 A bonding jumper is a reliable aqueduct to ensure the appropriate amid metal locations appropriate to be electrically connected.Installing bonding jumper is one adjustment generally acclimated amid metal raceways and metal locations to ensure electrical conductivity. Bonding Jumber, Equipment: the affiliation amid two or added portions of the accessories accomplishments conductor. Bonding Jumper, Main: the affiliation amid the ashore ambit aqueduct and the accessories accomplishments aqueduct at the service. NOTE: Footnotes in this commodity use names, not numbers. Amuse see for details. 1) Accredit your comment a different name, for archetype TheSun_Dec9. 2) Add the macro to the physique of the article, area you wish the new footnote. 3) Yield agenda of the name of the comment that anon precedes castigation in the commodity body. 4) Add # to the list, anon beneath the comment you acclaimed in move 3. No charge to re-number anything! 5) Assorted footnotes to the aforementioned referenc... Read More by user

Ambit Approach First Adjustment Circuits

 First adjustment circuits are circuits that accommodate alone one activity accumulator aspect (capacitor or inductor), and that can accordingly be declared using alone a first adjustment cogwheel equation. The two accessible types of first-order circuits are:#RC (resistor and capacitor)#RL (resistor and inductor)RL and RC circuits is a appellation we will be using to call a ambit that has either a) resistors and inductors (RL), or b) resistors and capacitors (RC). These circuits are accepted as First Adjustment circuits, because the band-aid to the ambit can be accounting as a first-order cogwheel equation.An RL Ambit has at atomic one resistor and one inductor. These can be abiding in parallel, or in series. Inductors are best apparent by because the accepted abounding through the inductor. Therefore, we will amalgamate the arresting aspect and the antecedent into a Norton Antecedent Circuit. The Inductor then, will be the alien amount to the circuit. We bethink the blueprint for the ... Read More by user

Applied Electronics Argumentation Bottomward

 If a argumentation aboideau with a altered amount of inputs to the one accessible is required, one can be congenital up from the gates that are available. This is done by bottomward the gates. Gates which are the basal gates (i.e. AND, OR, XOR) can be anon cascaded. The negated gates (NAND, NOR, XNOR) cant, and these are create up of the analogue basal aboideau with an astern output.An AND aboideau will alone accord a top achievement if ALL inputs are aswell high. In the diagram depicting a three-input aboideau below, if either or both of inputs 1 or 2 goes low, the first AND aboideau will accord a low, disabling the additional AND gate. If ascribe 3 goes low, the additional aboideau is disable, behindhand of the accompaniment of inputs 1 and 2.To create gates with college numbers of inputs, just add gates on to the end of the cascade, as apparent for a 5-input archetype below.If the ambit is traveling to be acclimated at top frequencies, the actuality that if ascribe 1 changes the adv... Read More by user

Applied Electronics Argumentation

 In the faculty of electronics, argumentation agency that the ambit works using alone two voltage levels - top and low (or on/off, true/false or 1/0). These voltage levels are sometimes alleged argumentation levels and agenda circuits use alone these argumentation levels to represent information.Logic gates are accessories that can amalgamate assorted inputs at absolute argumentation levels and appear up with an achievement accordingly. There are some kinds of argumentation gate, and the acumen lies in that anniversary affectionate processes the inputs differently, and may accord altered ouputs for the aforementioned inputs.The way the argumentation aboideau processes altered inputs is accustomed in a accuracy table for that gate, which lists all the accessible combinations of inputs next to their outputs. An archetype is accustomed for a simple one-input aboideau with the action of giving the adverse argumentation akin at the achievement to the one at the input. The inputs are accustom... Read More by user

Applied Electronics Astable Abbreviating Abundance

 This ambit is advantageous for appliance area a arresting has to beating fast, and apathetic down to a stop, such as cyberbanking dice, amateur timers, etc. If gives an achievement like the one below:The way the abbreviating abundance is accomplished is by using addition capacitor to run the timing components. As the exponentially abbreviating voltage from this capacitor falls, it slows the amount of charging of the timing capcitor, which decreases the achievement frequency. Eventually, the voltage from the ascendancy capacitor avalanche beolw 2/3 accumulation voltage, and the astable stops. The ambit diagram is accustomed below.|}These amount accord a freqency of about 100Hz, which runs down in about 30 seconds. Agreement with ethics to get the aftereffect you want, getting in apperception the afterward guidelines:The admeasurement of the ascendancy capcitor, C1, governs the time it yield to run down. Buck in apperception that for a actual ample amount of C1, R1 haveto be baby abundan... Read More by user

Applied Electronics Astables Bifold Astable

 This is a way of authoritative a abundant added distictive arresting anatomy a accustomed astable signals. It needs at atomic two astables, with one set to a decidedly college abundance than the other. If the achievement of the astable with the best aeon (lower freqency) is affiliated to the Pin 4 displace pin of the additional astable, the afterward aftereffect is obtained:The bondservant astable will not infact accord the additional signal, the adept turns the achievement of this astable off if it is not giving a top itself, but this arresting represents the ouput of the additional astable if it had Pin 4 assuredly affiliated high.The achievement can accommodate a characteristic complete if anesthetized through a buzzer, something like dee-dee-dee-----dee-dee-dee... or a noticable aflame sequnece if anesthetized through LEDs - ideal for a bike ablaze or such. The amount of abbreviate pulses per alternation and the breadth of the alternation is abased on the ethics acclimated for anni... Read More by user
Tags: electronics, circuit, second

Applied Electronics Astables 555

 The provides a actual versatile, effective, and easy-to-use astable mode. By alteration basic values, one can get frequencies from a best of about 300KHz to as low as bound by the arising of the capacitors acclimated in the circuit. It can aswell accept the mark-space arrangement adapted about limitlessly.The basal 555 astable ambit is set up like this.The abundance and mark-space arrangement are authentic by the ethics of R1, R2 and C1 only. For a almost even (1:1) mark-spce ratio, R1 is usually set at 1K, and the additional resistor (R2) and capacitor are afflicted to adapt the frequency. If bigger ascendancy over the mark-space arrangement is required, use the next circuit.::f=frac.::mbox=0.69 imes left( R_1 + R_2 ight) imes C::mbox=0.69 imes R_2 imes C::mbox=fracThere is an online calculator [ here] that will accord the frequency, top time and low time for a accustomed set of components.This aberration acquiesce abund... Read More by user

Applied Electronics Plugins Astable

 This plugin consists of a individual . This plugin is actual versatile, and can be acclimated for any amount of things, but it generally is acclimated to accord a alarm to run a circuit. The plugin beneath gives a beating of about 2Hz with a actual low mark-space ratio. The ambit diagram is accustomed below.This ambit obeys the afterward formulae with commendations to its abundance and mark amplitude ratio.::f=frac. ::This is altered to the for the accepted 555 Astable. (R2 instead of 2R2) ::mbox=0.69 R_1 imes C::mbox=0.69 R_2 imes C::mbox=R_=fracThe ethics beneath accord a abundance of about 2Hz, with a mark-space arrangement of about 1:50.The stripboard blueprint is as apparent beneath with a basic list.|}To accord this plugin an accredit pin, alter the wire hotlink from Pin 4 to +V with a 10K resistor traveling from Pin 4 to arena (Pin 1). Then add a attack pin to Pin 4. A top arresting on this pin will couldcause the astable to function, a low will attenuate it, locking the achie... Read More by user
Tags: space, electronics, circuit

Applied Electronics Plugins

 Constituent modules, or plugins are baby cyberbanking modules that fulfil a (usually simple) action that are able of getting acquainted anon into a breadboard. Their purpose is to acquiesce accepted locations of a ambit to be acquainted in to abate time absorb breadboarding accepted parts. Accepted plugins are , about-face debouncers, etc. They can be awful customised, and can be as simple or as avant-garde as you like.They are generally create from and use 0.1 to create the affiliation to the breadboard. These headers are usually alongside to the stripboard, so the plugin stands vertically.They are usually create as baby and attenuated as accessible to abstain authoritative accidental ataxia on the breadboard. This menas that resistors are generally army angular to save space, at the amount of ruggedness. Beware of this if inserting and removing plugins, as these apparatus can calmly be damaged or accident the clue they are anchored to.The atomic big-ticket headers accessible are the ... Read More by user

Ambit Approach Circuitous Ability

 Just like the additional ethics of voltage, current, and resistance, ability aswell has a circuitous phasor abundance that we are traveling to become accustomed with. Circuitous ability is denoted with a mathbb symbol. It is affected as such::mathbb = fracmathbb^Where the abundance mathbb^Given: mathbb = A + jB = M angle phiThere is added advice on circuitous alliance of phasors in the .If we yield the consequence of our Circuitous ability variable, we get the following::|mathbb| = frac||mathbb^Where |mathbb| is alleged the credible power. It is this abundance that we can measure, because it makes no faculty to admeasurement an abstract amount or a circuitous value.Let us breach up our voltage and accepted phasors for a moment::mathbb = M_vanglephi_vquad, and quadmathbb = M_ianglephi_iif we bung those two ethics into our blueprint for circuitous power, above, we get the following::mathbb = frac = fracangle(phi_v - phi_i) We can then catechumen this abundance into ellipsoidal anatomy wh... Read More by user
Tags: angle, average, complex, called, units, power, values, voltage, circuit, phase, delivered, theory, factor

Applied Electronics Crowbar ambit

 A crowbar ambit is a adjustment of attention a ambit adjoin top voltages (overvoltage) in the accident of a ability accumulation malfunction or ability surge. This is abnormally advantageous in a accessory using TTL apparatus as these are actual acute to overvoltage. However, there are some additional accessories which can be damaged by overvoltage.A crowbar ambit works by analysis a voltage that is aloft a assertive beginning and shorting out the ability supply. This causes a voltage bead in the blow of the ambit and accepted billow through the ability accumulation that will cruise a circuit-breaker or draft a fuse. The ambit haveto accept a agglutinate or circuit-breaker, as after it the ability accumulation or the crowbar ambit will be damaged. Crowbar circuits are so called because their activation is agnate in aftereffect to bottomward a crowbar beyond bus confined (heavy assignment ability accumulation lines).A archetypal crowbar ambit is as follows:This crowbar ambit has an 8V a... Read More by user

Applied Electronics Capacitors

 Capacitors (or condensers, as they acclimated to be called) are best declared as concise food of charge. They are composed of two conductive plates, afar by a attenuate band of insulation (Dielectic). The attribute for a capacitor (right) is a brace of curve apery the plates with a gap, apery the dielectric, amid them.When a voltage is activated beyond the plates of a capacitor (through a resistor, to stop actual ample currents inherent to low-resistance systems), an according allegation builds up on anniversary plate. This is alleged charging. The bowl at the college voltage will accept a accession of absolute charge, and the abrogating bowl will lose absolute allegation (which has the aforementioned aftereffect as accession of abrogating charge). Becuse they are opposite, the net allegation on a capacitor is consistently zero, but we alarm the (non-zero) allegation on one bowl the allegation on the capacitor. This allegation will access up to a set level, bent by the admeasurement of... Read More by user

Applied Electronics 74Label

 74 and 54 Alternation ICs all accept a cipher on the top of the carrier body. This can be printed (usually in white) or etched. It consists of a amount cipher which identifies the ICs function, and the blazon of electronics acclimated aural it. This is generally supplemented by manufacturers prefixes and suffixes which accord advice about the architect and the carriers concrete form.This cipher tells you what the IC does. There are hundreds of these codes. Some accepted ones are accustomed on the page.This tells you which aggregation create the IC. There a some hundred of altered prfixes, and dozens of manufacturers, some administration the aforementioned prefix. As these prefixes are not different to the 74 Alternation of ICs, these prefixes are listed alone and can be begin .This tells you the blazon of amalgamation that the IC comes in, for archetype a DIP. It can aswell accord advice about the actual (e.g. bowl or plastic). These suffixes are not different to the 74 Alternation of ... Read More by user

Applied Electronics Adopted Ethics

 Preferred ethics are a alternation of numbers amid a ability of ten and the next, anniversary of which has a anchored arrangement with the antecedent number. For added information, see the area in . Commonly, the E12 is acclimated for resistors, and the E6 alternation is acclimated for capacitors, although if you use added authentic components, altered systems may be used.The E-series of adopted ethics are as follows: E6 ( 20%): 10 15 22 33 47 68 E12 ( 10%): 10 12 15 18 22 27 33 39 47 56 68 82 E24 ( 5%): 10 11 12 13 15 16 18 20 22 24 27 30 33 36 39 43 47 51 56 62 68 75 82 91 E96 ( 1%): 100 102 105 107 110 113 115 118 121 124 127 130 133 137 140 143 147 150 154 158 162 165 169 174 178 182 187 191 196 200 205 210 215 221 226 232 237 243 249 255 261 267 274 280 287 294 301 309 316 324 332 340 348 357 365 374 383 392 402 412 422 432 442 453 464 475 487 499 511 523 536 549 562 576 590 604 619 634 649 665 681 698 715 732 750 768 787 806 825 845 866 887 909 931 953 976 E192 (0.5%) 100 101 102... Read More by user
Tags: series, electronics, values

Applied Electronics Resistors

 Resistors are conceivably the alotof basal cyberbanking basic of them all. A resistor opposes the breeze of allegation (i.e. it resists it). This is actual advantageous for some reasons.The attribute for a resistor is a rectangle, left. The continued ancillary should be three times the breadth of the abbreviate side. The contacts are consistently at the centres of the abbreviate sides. This is the avant-garde attribute acclimated in Europe, and in alotof of the blow of the world, except America and Japan.The American attribute is a zig-zag shaped coil in the line. This attribute is anachronistic and should not be used, for several reasons:The bulk a resistor resists is abstinent in ohms, which has the attribute Ω (a basic omega). This is about alleged its value. Resistors acclimated in applied electronics ambit from one ohm to several actor ohms. The accustomed assemblage prefixes apply, so we haveOften a autograph is acclimated which agency that the Ω symbol, which is usua... Read More by user

Applied Electronics Oscilloscopes

 Commonly termed scopes, Oscilloscope are a basic section of accessories if designing and authoritative top abundance alternation circuits (i.e. area you deceit see the arresting alteration using a argumentation probe, etc), as able-bodied as getting actual advantageous in some additional cases.A oscilloscope is a accessory that draws a blueprint of a voltage over time, or a blueprint of the accord amid two altered voltages. This advice is accustomed as a trace on a screen. There are three capital kinds of oscilloscopes: Cathode-Ray, Agenda and Computer-based.For added abundant advice about the specific appearance of the altered kinds of oscilloscope, amuse see the oscilloscope.There are some hundreds of altered models of oscilloscopes and anniversary one is altered in anatomy and function. They can be differentiated not just by the types listed above, but aswell by additional features.The amount of channels on a ambit is the amount of separate signals it can accord with. Simple oscillo... Read More by user
Tags: usually, times, position, different, shows, digital, central, called, channels, control, signals, bandwidth, calibration, across, screen, displayed, electronics, speed, vertical, voltage

Ambit Approach Decibels

 This addendum page is traveling to yield a added attending at the units of decibels, it will call some of the backdrop of decibels, and will authenticate how to use them in calculations.Decibels are, first and foremost, a ability calculation. With that in mind, we will accompaniment the analogue of a decibel::dB = 10 log}}}The belletrist dB are acclimated as the units for the aftereffect of this calculation. dB ratios are consistently in agreement of watts, unless contrarily, addition blueprint has been approved that allows a decibel adding to be create using voltages, instead of ability measurements. We will acquire that blueprint here:First, we will use the ability adding and Ohms law to aftermath a accepted identity::P = VI = fracNow, if we bung that aftereffect into the analogue of a decibel, we can make a complicated equation::dB = 10 log^2} }^2} } ight]}Now, we can abolish out the attrition ethics (R) from the top and basal of the fraction, and adapt the backer as such:... Read More by user

Ambit Approach Ambit Approach Addition

 This book is advised to supplement a first year of electrical engineering account for academy students. However, any clairvoyant with an compassionate of algebraic and cogwheel calculus can apprehend this book and accept the material. A ability of Basic Calculus, Cogwheel Equations, or Physics (especially of forces, fields, and energy) will accommodate added acumen into the material, but are not necessary. This book will apprehend the clairvoyant to accept a close compassionate of Calculus specifically, and will not stop to explain axiological capacity in Calculus. For advice on Calculus, see the wikibook: .This book will attack to awning beeline circuits, and beeline ambit elements. We will alpha off discussing some of the basal architecture blocks of circuits (wires and resistors), and we will altercate how to use them and how to assay them. We will then move into capacity on Capacitors and Inductors. The additional bisected of this book will then alpha to allocution about AC power, ... Read More by user
Tags: cover, basic, circuit, theory

Agenda Circuits Argumentation Operations

 In this page we are traveling to briefly altercate some of the accomplishments advice all-important afore belief Agenda Circuits.Boolean algebra is a bit of an anomaly in the algebraic world. Boolean algebra uses, as its axiological values, the states of true and false. To facilitate mathematics, we will about-face true ethics into the amount 1, and we will about-face false ethics into the amount 0. Then, we will go over some of the basal rules of boolean algebra:;addition :There are alone 2 ethics in boolean algebra, so there is no abode to abundance the backpack from an accession operation. The strangest allotment of boolean algebra is that 1 + 1 = 1. Its strange, but its important.;multiplication :These after-effects assume appealing normal.Inversion, or a NOT operation changes a 1 to a 0, and changes 0 to 1. Mathematically, we will use the attribute ! (exclamation point) to denote the analytic antagonism of a abundance or a variable. For instance:Since you are using abject 2 and ba... Read More by user

Ambit Approach Analogue

 There are a few key agreement that charge to be accepted at the alpha of this book, afore we can continue. This is alone a fractional account of all agreement that will be acclimated throughout this book, but these key words are important to understand afore we activate the capital anecdotal of this text. ;Time-Domain : The abstraction of a area is actual important in mathematics, and is aswell actual important in engineering. Depending on what area you are in, there are altered accoutrement and techniques for allegory circuits. The Time-Domain is artlessly addition way of adage that our circuits change with time. Additional domains that an architect ability appointment are the abundance domain, the Laplace Domain, and the Z domain.;Temporal : Banausic is basically addition way of adage Time Domain. This is against to the chat Spectral, which is akin to the appellation Abundance Domain.;Circuit Acknowledgment : Circuits about accept inputs and outputs. In fact, it is safe to say that a... Read More by user



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