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Cryptography Tutorials - Tutorial Addendum - Using Certificates with Web Browsers

 (Continued from antecedent part...)View Certificates in FireFox1. Accessible Firefox 1.0, and go to the "Tools / Options..." card option. The Options chat box shows up. 2. Bang the Avant-garde icon, then accessible the Certificates section.3. Bang the Administer Certificates... button. The Affidavit Administrator chat box shows up. 4. Go to the Authorities tab. 5. Baddest "Verisign Class3 Accessible Primary Acceptance Authority", and bang "View" button. The Affidavit Eyewitness chat box shows up. 6. Analysis the data of the affidavit on the "Details" tab. Looks like FireFox allows you to appearance certificates, but not let you consign them out to files. Importing Certificates into FireFoxTo analysis importing certificates into FireFox, let s reclaim the aforementioned certificates:.crt - self-signed by .john.crt - active by .bill.crt - active by John. tom.crt - active by John. Here are the accomplish to acceptation .crt into FireFox: 1. Accessible Firefox 1.0, and go to the "Tools / O... Read More by user

Cryptography Tutorials - Tutorial Addendum - Using Certificates with Web Browsers

 (Continued from antecedent part...)Once exported, we can appearance the affidavit with OpenSSL: >openssl x509 -in verisign.cer -inform DER -noout -textCertificate: Data: Version: 1 (0x0) Consecutive Number: 7d:d9:fe:07:cf:a8:1e:b7:10:79:67:fb:a7:89:34:c6 Signature Algorithm: sha1WithRSAEncryption Issuer: C=US, O=VeriSign, Inc., OU=Class 3 Accessible Primary Certification Ascendancy - G2, OU=(c) 1998 VeriSign, Inc. - For authorized use only, OU=VeriSign Assurance Network Validity Not Before: May 18 00:00:00 1998 GMT Not Afterwards : Aug 1 23:59:59 2028 GMT Subject: C=US, O=VeriSign, Inc., OU=Class 3 Accessible Primary Certification Ascendancy - G2, OU=(c) 1998 VeriSign, Inc. - For authorized use only, OU=VeriSign Assurance Network Accountable Accessible Key Info: Accessible Key Algorithm: rsaEncryption RSA Accessible Key: (1024 bit) Modulus (1024 bit): 00:cc:5e:d1:11:5d:5c:69:d0:ab:d3:b9:6a:4c:99: 1f:59:98:30:8e:16:85:20:46:6d:47:3f:d4:85:20: 84:e1:6d:b3:f8:a4:ed:0c:f1:17:0f:3b:f9:a7:f9... Read More by user

Cryptography Tutorials - Tutorial Addendum - Using Certificates with Web Browsers

 This affiliate describes:Why Using Certificates with Browser? Exporting Certificates Out of Internet Explorer (IE)Importing Certificates into IEView Certificates in FireFoxImporting Certificates into FireFoxWhy Using Certificates with Browser? In antecedent locations of the book, we accept abstruse how to accomplish certificates. Now let s see how we can use certificates with Web browsers. The first catechism we charge to ask is why do we charge certificates in a Web browser? The acknowledgment is that many Web sites supports SSL (Secure Atrium Layer). When a Web browser alcove a SSL enabled Web website (URL starts with https://), the server will forward a certificate, called server certificate, the Web browser. The accountable of the server affidavit represents the server. The browseris accepted to assurance the server certificate, or validate it with a trusted acceptance path. A SSL enabled Web website may aswell ask the Web browser to forward aback a certificate, alleged applicant c... Read More by user

Cryptography Tutorials - Tutorial Addendum - OpenSSL - Acceptance Aisle and Validation

 (Continued from antecedent part...)2. Breeding a affidavit for John and active by , john.crt: >echo Breeding keys for John>openssl genrsa -des3 -out john_rsa.key...>echo Breeding a affidavit signing appeal for John>openssl req -new -key john_rsa.key -out john.csr -config openssl.cnf...>echo Signing a John s appeal by s key>openssl x509 -req -in john.csr -CA .crt -CAkey _rsa.key -out john.crt -set_serial 3...3. Breeding a affidavit for Bill and active by John, bill.crt: >echo Breeding keys for Bill>openssl genrsa -des3 -out bill_rsa.key...>echo Breeding a affidavit signing appeal for Bill>openssl req -new -key bill_rsa.key -out bill.csr -config openssl.cnf...>echo Signing a Bill s appeal by John s key>openssl x509 -req -in bill.csr -CA john.crt -CAkey john_rsa.key -out bill.crt -set_serial 7...4. Breeding a affidavit for Tom and active by Bill, tom.crt: >echo Breeding keys for Tom>openssl genrsa -des3 -out tom_rsa.key...>echo Breeding a affidavit signing appeal for Bill>openssl req -new... Read More by user

Cryptography Tutorials - Tutorial Addendum - OpenSSL - Acceptance Aisle and Validation

 This affiliate describes:What Is a Acceptance Path?Certification Aisle ValidationCertification Aisle Testing with OpenSSLWhat Is a Acceptance Path?Certification Path: Aswell alleged Affidavit Chain. An ordered account of certificates area the accountable article of one affidavit is identical to the arising article of the next certificate. A acceptance aisle can aswell be authentic as an ordered account of certificates area the arising article of one certificatecan be articular as the accountable article of the antecedent certificate. But the first affidavit has to be a appropriate one,because there is no antecedent affidavit to analyze the arising entity. The first affidavit haveto be a self-signed certificate, area the arising article is the aforementioned as the accountable entity. For example, the afterward diagram shows you a acceptance path: Certificate 1 Issuer: Yang Subject: YangCertificate 2 Issuer: Yang Subject: John SmithCertificate 3 Issuer: John Smith Subject: Bill WhiteCer... Read More by user

Cryptography Tutorials - Tutorial Addendum - OpenSSL - Breeding RSA Clandestine and Accessible Keys

 (Continued from antecedent part...)Encrypting RSA KeysSince RSA keys contains a clandestine key, which should not be allotment with anyone else. So it s acerb recommended to abundance the RSA keys in an encrypted anatomy with a countersign to assure them. Here is how to use OpenSSL to accomplish a RSA key brace and encrypt it DES3 algorithm: >openssl genrsa -des3 -out _rsa.keyLoading awning into accidental accompaniment - doneGenerating RSA clandestine key, 2048 bit continued modulus...............................................+++................................................................+++e is 65537 (0x10001)Enter canyon byword for user.key: mykeyVerifying - Access canyon byword for user.key: mykey>type _rsa.key-----BEGIN RSA Clandestine KEY-----Proc-Type: 4,ENCRYPTEDDEK-Info: DES-EDE3-CBC,61523E68F580569DMC5FNOEYflddyBF2orcTtzHSUpzrevcxZpbUU827hdmgDEoZKg54VVd9xGnxnodmhq1LSenM1AxWO5Bzzmxr3WCiz94xPxNSUd/1f9eonaVZT7CaVzn533lj3G26uvtOOyNXyBcb/kUGHXeCeGU322lB1p8gShOC/P9ip/wQvlR2ya... Read More by user
Tags: state, screen, command, notes, tutorial, tutorials

Cryptography Tutorials - Tutorial Addendum - OpenSSL - Breeding RSA Clandestine and Accessible Keys

 This affiliate describes:What is RSA?Generating RSA accessible and clandestine keys.Viewing Apparatus of RSA Keys.Encrypting RSA Keys.What is RSA?RSA is an agee encryption algorithm developed in 1977 that use a brace of clandestine key and accessible key.RSA is the brand of the developers of the RSA algorithm: Ron Rivest, Adi Shamir, and Leonard Adleman.Today, RSA is apparently the alotof acclimated the encryption algorithm for the Internet communication.Generating RSA Key PairsHere is how to use OpenSSL to accomplish a brace of RSA clandestine key and accessible key: >openssl genrsa -out _rsa.keyLoading awning into accidental accompaniment - doneGenerating RSA clandestine key, 512 bit continued modulus..++++++++++++................++++++++++++e is 65537 (0x10001)>type _rsa.key-----BEGIN RSA Clandestine KEY-----MIIBOwIBAAJBANoK3b+0NV1xrFLjsKFPLrxMReu3ezPxLjDWjktakq9gDGM5WUvICSENry/M1h2AhxGSxQluy4b1ynzBGWeO320CAwEAAQJAbQQn0NSKJflSvnLG+i/73vuHrg4j1FmOza5IoNZdJr9DyESMC+prebZkAFM2EW+ZLZy2J... Read More by user

Cryptography Tutorials - Tutorial Addendum - OpenSSL - Signing Certificates from Others

 (Continued from antecedent part...)Viewing Apparatus of Affidavit Signing RequestHere is how to see the apparatus of a affidavit signing request: >openssl req -in .csr -noout -text -config openssl.cnfCertificate Request: Data: Version: 0 (0x0) Subject: C=CN, ST=PN, L=LN, O=ON, OU=UN, CN= Yang Accountable Accessible Key Info: Accessible Key Algorithm: rsaEncryption RSA Accessible Key: (512 bit) Modulus (512 bit): 00:a9:e6:19:c6:ee:88:01:86:d9:72:9e:93:92:db: 57:01:7b:02:84:fc:1e:e3:57:5e:2a:7b:2b:25:9e: bd:ba:c5:95:2c:49:59:28:df:a6:67:86:26:8e:ff: 36:cc:3a:84:5c:28:af:6f:11:c8:0c:b5:c2:c5:b9: 04:d6:0e:5d:d1 Exponent: 65537 (0x10001) Attributes: challengePassword :myreq Signature Algorithm: md5WithRSAEncryption 80:be:77:39:65:0f:24:db:70:c1:76:e3:b6:c7:99:a5:c7:af: ae:98:5a:73:98:f8:60:f1:65:08:a9:f7:df:6f:bd:77:aa:f7: bb:0b:f2:0d:71:6e:ad:ee:52:5a:2b:a7:2a:c0:fd:0e:4c:8f: c1:43:18:58:0b:10:03:e0:e5:a3Some absorbing addendum here:The appeal is active with my clandestine key. I don t see... Read More by user
Tags: certificate, signature, subject, screen, certificates, notes, public, signing, tutorial, tutorials

Cryptography Tutorials - Tutorial Addendum - OpenSSL - Signing Certificates from Others

 This affiliate describes:Why Certificates Charge to Be Active by CAs?Generating a Affidavit Signing Appeal for Your Own Accessible KeyViewing Apparatus of Affidavit Signing RequestSigning a Affidavit Signing RequestWhy Certificates Charge to Be Active by CAs?In the antecedent chapter, we abstruse how to put your own accessible key in a affidavit and assurance it by your own clandestine key to create it as a self-signed certificate. Of course, you can forward your self-signed affidavit to your advice partner and alpha to use it to encrypt the advice data. However, this alone works if your advice accomplice knows you and trustsyour agenda signature. In the case area you advice accomplice can not assurance you directly, what youcan do is to forward your accessible key to a affidavit ascendancy (CA) and ask them to assurance itfor you. To do this, you charge to put your accessible key into a affidavit signing appeal (CSR), and mail it to a CA. The CA will verify the appeal and put your acc... Read More by user

Cryptography Tutorials - Tutorial Addendum - OpenSSL - Breeding Self-Signed Certificates

 (Continued from antecedent part...)Here is the command to generated a self-signed affidavit based on a RSA key brace file, _rsa_des.key, generated previously: >openssl req -new -key _rsa_des.key -x509 -out .crt -config openssl.cnfEnter canyon byword for _rsa_des.key:You are about to be asked to access advice that will be incorporatedinto your affidavit request.What you are about to access is what is alleged a Acclaimed Name or a DN.There are absolutely a few fields but you can leave some blankFor some fields there will be a absence value,If you access . , the acreage will be larboard blank.-----Country Name (2 letter code) []:CNState or Arena Name (full name) []:PNLocality Name (eg, city) []:LNOrganization Name (eg, company) []:ONOrganizational Assemblage Name (eg, section) []:UNCommon Name (eg, YOUR name) []: YangEmail Abode []:.>type .crt-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----MIICUTCCAfugAwIBAgIBADANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQQFADBXMQswCQYDVQQGEwJDTjELMAkGA1UECBMCUE4xCzAJBgNVBAcTAkNOMQswCQYDVQQKEwJPTjELMAkGA... Read More by user
Tags: certificate, signature, included, subject, command, notes, public, issuer, tutorial, tutorials

Cryptography Tutorials - Tutorial Addendum - OpenSSL - Breeding Self-Signed Certificates

 This affiliate describes: What is a certificate? Generating Self-Signed Certificates Viewing Apparatus of Certificates What is a Certificate? Certificate: A digitally active account from the issuer adage that the accessible key of the accountable has some specific value. The aloft analogue is affected from the JDK 1.3.1 documentation. It has a brace of important terms: "signed statement" - The affidavit haveto be active by the issuer with a agenda signature. "issuer" - The being or alignment who is arising this certificate. "public key" - The accessible key of a key brace called by the subject. "subject" - The being or alignment who owns the accessible key. X.509 Affidavit - A affidavit accounting in X.509 accepted format. X.509 accepted was addition in 1988. It requires a affidavit to have the afterward information: Version - X.509 accepted adaptation number. Serial Amount - A arrangement amount accustomed to anniversary certificate. Signature Algorithm Identifier - Name of the algori... Read More by user

Cryptography Tutorials - Tutorial Addendum - Bulletin Abstract - SHA1 Algorithm

 (Continued from antecedent part...)If you run this sample program with PHP 5, you should get: SHA1("") = da39a3ee5e6b4b0d3255bfef95601890afd80709SHA1("abc") = a9993e364706816aba3e25717850c26c9cd0d89dSHA1("abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz") = 32d10c7b8cf96570ca04ce37f2a19d84240d3a89SHA1 Accomplishing in PerlIf you are absorbed in using SHA1 in Perl, you can attending a actual absorbing implementation by John Allen in 8 curve of perl5, see http://www.cypherspace.org/adam/rsa/sha.html. Actuality is a archetype of John s code, stored in PerlSha1In8Lines.pl: #!/usr/bin/perl -iD9T4C`>_-JXF8NMS^$#)4=L/2X?!:@GF9;MGKH8;O-S*8L 6@A=unpack"N*",unpack u,$^I;@K=splice@A,5,4;sub M{($x=pop)-($m=1+~0)*int$x/$m};sub L{$n=pop;($x=pop)<<$n|2**$n-1&$x>>32-$n}@F=(sub{$b&($c^$d)^$d},$S=sub{$b^$c^$d},sub{($b|$c)&$d|$b&$c},$S);do{$l+=$r=read STDIN,$_,64;$r++,$_.="x80"if$r<64&&!$p++;@W=unpack N16,$_."... Read More by user

Cryptography Tutorials - Tutorial Addendum - Bulletin Abstract - SHA1 Algorithm

 (Continued from antecedent part...)Here is a sample Java program to appearance you how to use the MessageDigest chic to accomplish some testson SHA1 algorithms. /** * JceSha1Test.java * Absorb (c) 2006 by Dr. Yang, http://www.yang.com/ */import java.security.*;class JceSha1Test { accessible changeless abandoned main(String[] a) { try { MessageDigest md = MessageDigest.getInstance("SHA1"); System.out.println("Message abstract item info: "); System.out.println(" Algorithm = "+md.getAlgorithm()); System.out.println(" Provider = "+md.getProvider()); System.out.println(" toString = "+md.toString()); Cord ascribe = ""; md.update(input.getBytes()); byte[] achievement = md.digest(); System.out.println(); System.out.println("SHA1(""+input+"") ="); System.out.println(" "+bytesToHex(output)); ascribe = "abc"; md.update(input.getBytes()); achievement = md.digest(); System.out.println(); System.out.println("SHA1(""+input+"") ="); System.out.println(" "+bytesToHex(output)); ascribe = "abcdefghij... Read More by user

Cryptography Tutorials - Tutorial Addendum - Bulletin Abstract - SHA1 Algorithm

 (Continued from antecedent part...)Task 3. Advancing Processing Functions. SHA1 requires 80 processing functions authentic as: f(t;B,C,D) = (B AND C) OR ((NOT B) AND D) ( 0 <= t <= 19) f(t;B,C,D) = B XOR C XOR D (20 <= t <= 39) f(t;B,C,D) = (B AND C) OR (B AND D) OR (C AND D) (40 <= t <= 59) f(t;B,C,D) = B XOR C XOR D (60 <= t <= 79) Task 4. Advancing Processing Constants. SHA1 requires 80 processing connected words authentic as: K(t) = 0x5A827999 ( 0 <= t <= 19) K(t) = 0x6ED9EBA1 (20 <= t <= 39) K(t) = 0x8F1BBCDC (40 <= t <= 59) K(t) = 0xCA62C1D6 (60 <= t <= 79) Task 5. Initializing Buffers. SHA1 algorithm requires 5 chat buffers with the afterward antecedent values: H0 = 0x67452301 H1 = 0xEFCDAB89 H2 = 0x98BADCFE H3 = 0x10325476 H4 = 0xC3D2E1F0Task 6. Processing Bulletin in 512-bit Blocks. This is the capital assignment of SHA1 algorithm, which loops through the bedlam and added bulletin in blocks of 512 $.25 each. For anniversary ascri... Read More by user
Tags: functions, requires, processing, message, blocks, defined, notes, string, tutorial, tutorials

Cryptography Tutorials - Tutorial Addendum - Bulletin Abstract - SHA1 Algorithm

 This tutorial helps you to accept What is SHA1?SHA1 Algorithm OverviewSHA1 Accomplishing in JavaSHA1 Accomplishing in PHPSHA1 Accomplishing in PerlWhat is SHA1SHA1 (Secure Assortment Algorithm 1) is message-digest algorithm, which takes an ascribe bulletin of any breadth < 2^64 $.25 and produces a 160-bit outputas the bulletin digest.Based on the SHA1 RFC document, the SHA-1 is alleged defended because it is computationally infeasible to acquisition a bulletin which corresponds to a accustomed bulletin digest, or to acquisition two altered letters which aftermath the aforementioned bulletin digest. Any change to a bulletin in alteration will, with actual top probability, aftereffect in a altered bulletin digest, and the signature will abort to verify.The aboriginal blueprint of the algorithm was appear in 1993 as the Defended Assortment Standard, FIPS PUB 180, by US government standards bureau NIST (National Convention of Standards and Technology). This adaptation is now generally r... Read More by user

Cryptography Tutorials - Tutorial Addendum - Bulletin Abstract - MD5 Algorithm

 (Continued from antecedent part...)MD5 Accomplishing in PerlIf you are absorbed in using MD5 in Perl, you can attending a actual absorbing implementation by John Allen in 8 curve of perl5, see http://www.cypherspace.org/adam/rsa/md5.html. Actuality is a archetype of John s code, stored in PerlMd5In8Lines.pl: #!/usr/bin/perl -iH9T4C`>_-JXF8NMS^$#)4=@<,$18%"0X4!`L0%P8*#Q4``04``04#!P``@A=unpack N4C24,unpack u,$^I;@K=map{int abs 2**32*sin$_}1..64;sub L{($x=pop)<<($n=pop)|2**$n-1&$x>>32-$n}sub M{($x=pop)-($m=1+~0)*int$x/$m}do{$l+=$r=readSTDIN,$_,64;$r++,$_.="x80"if$r<64&&!$p++;@W=unpack V16,$_."... Read More by user
Tags: message, command, notes, tutorial, tutorials

Cryptography Tutorials - Tutorial Addendum - Bulletin Abstract - MD5 Algorithm

 (Continued from antecedent part...)If you run this sample program with JDK 1.5, you should get the afterward output: Message abstract item info: Algorithm = MD5 Provider = SUN adaptation 1.5 toString = MD5 Bulletin Abstract from SUN, <initialized>MD5("") = D41D8CD98F00B204E9800998ECF8427EMD5("abc") = 900150983CD24FB0D6963F7D28E17F72MD5("abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz") = C3FCD3D76192E4007DFB496CCA67E13B The achievement matches the testing aftereffect listed in RFC 1321. MD5 Accomplishing in PHPIf you are absorbed in using MD5 in PHP, you can use the congenital action md5(). Here is a sample program assuming you how to use md5() function: <?php # PhpMd5Test.php# Absorb (c) 2006 by Dr. Yang, http://www.yang.com/# $input = ""; $output = md5($input); print(" "); print("MD5("".$input."") = "); print(" $output "); $input = "abc"; $output = md5($input); print(" "); print("MD5("".$input."") = "); print(" $output "); $input = "abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz"; $output = md5($input); print(" "); pr... Read More by user

Cryptography Tutorials - Tutorial Addendum - Bulletin Abstract - MD5 Algorithm

 (Continued from antecedent part...)Step 5. Output. The capacity in absorber words A, B, C, D are alternate in arrangement with low-order byte first.MD5 Accomplishing in JavaSun provides MD5 algorithm in Java beneath their JCE (Java Cryptography Extension) package, which is included in JDK 1.5.Sun s accomplishing of MD5 can be accessed through a all-encompassing chic alleged MessageDigest.Here are the capital methods of MessageDigest class:getInstance("MD5") - Allotment a bulletin abstract item represents a specific accomplishing of MD5 algorithm from the absence provider, Sun.getProvider() - Allotment the provider name of the accepted object.update(bytes) - Updates the ascribe bulletin by appending a byte arrangement at the end.digest() - Performs MD5 algorithm on the accepted ascribe bulletin and allotment the bulletin digestas a byte array. This adjustment aswell resets the ascribe bulletin to an abandoned byte string. reset() - Resets the ascribe bulletin to an abandoned byte string... Read More by user
Tags: system, class, provider, message, notes, string, tutorial, tutorials, object

Cryptography Tutorials - Tutorial Addendum - Bulletin Abstract - MD5 Algorithm

 (Continued from antecedent part...)Step 3. Initializing MD Buffer. MD5 algorithm requires a 128-bit absorber with a specific initial value. The rules of initializing absorber are:The absorber is disconnected into 4 words (32 $.25 each), called as A, B, C, and D.Word A is initialized to: 0x67452301.Word B is initialized to: 0xEFCDAB89.Word C is initialized to: 0x98BADCFE.Word D is initialized to: 0x10325476.Step 4. Processing Bulletin in 512-bit Blocks. This is the capital move of MD 5 algorithm, which loops through the bedlam and added bulletin in blocks of 512 $.25 each. For anniversary ascribe block, 4 circuit of operations are performed with 16 operations in anniversary round. This move can bedescribed in the afterward bogus cipher hardly adapted from the RFC 1321 s version: Input and predefined functions: A, B, C, D: initialized absorber words F(X,Y,Z) = (X AND Y ) OR (NOT X AND Z) G(X,Y,Z) = (X AND Z ) OR (Y AND NOT Z) H(X,Y,Z) = X XOR Y XOR Z I(X,Y,Z) = Y XOR (X OR NOT Z) T: Arra... Read More by user

Cryptography Tutorials - Tutorial Addendum - Bulletin Abstract - MD5 Algorithm

 This tutorial helps you to accept What is MD5?MD5 Algorithm OverviewMD5 Accomplishing in JavaMD5 Accomplishing in PHPMD5 Accomplishing in PerlWhat is MD5?Based on the MD5 RFC document, MD5 is message-digest algorithm, which takes as ascribe a bulletin of approximate breadth and produces as achievement a 128-bit "fingerprint" or "message digest" of the input. It is accepted that it is computationally absurd to produce two letters accepting the aforementioned bulletin digest, or to aftermath any bulletin accepting a accustomed prespecified ambition bulletin digest.MD5 was advised by Ronald Rivest in 1991 to alter an beforehand assortment function, MD4. MD5 is added defended than MD4. About a amount of weaknesses accept been begin in contempo years. The alotof contempo cardboard appear in this breadth shows that a blow of MD5 can be begin within one minute on a accepted anthology PC, using a adjustment alleged tunneling.Despite its weaknesses, MD5 is broadly acclimated in agenda signature... Read More by user

 

 

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