#### Computers & Technology c-sharp

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## Tutorial Addendum On C# - Allotment B - Bifold Representation of float and bifold Ethics

accessible abandoned outputDebugText() { int i; Console.WriteLine("======"); Console.WriteLine("Converting a absolute amount to IEEE Stardard 754"); Console.WriteLine("Binary Amphibian Point with Individual Precision:"); Console.WriteLine(""); Console.WriteLine(" Value: {0}",original_value); Console.WriteLine(" Sign: {0}",sign); Console.WriteLine(" Exponent: {0}",exponent); Console.Write(" Fraction: "); Console.Write("{0}.",lead); for (i=0; i<fraction_size; i++) { Console.Write("{0}",fraction[i]); } Console.WriteLine(""); Console.Write(" Position: "); Console.Write("{0} ", ); for (i=0; i<fraction_size; i++) { Console.Write("{0}",i%10); } Console.WriteLine(""); Console.WriteLine(""); } accessible changeless abandoned Main() { float v; IeeeFloat x; // try 0.0 first v = 0.0f; x = new IeeeFloat(v); Console.WriteLine("{0}, {1}", v, x.toBinaryExpression()); // try 1.0 v = 1.0f; x = new IeeeFloat(v); Console.WriteLine("{0}, {1}", v, x.toBinaryExpression()); // try 2.0 v = 2.0f; x = ne... Read More by user

## Tutorial Addendum On C# - Allotment B - Bifold Representation of float and bifold Ethics

Rule 7: If the backer basic abundance all 1s, the atom componentis aloof for addition operation uses.For abrogating values, aggregate is identical with the absolute numbers,except the assurance bit.The constant, 127, acclimated in backer allotment of the announcement is alleged the bias. For double-precision standard, the bent is 1023. The IEEE 754 standards are aswell alleged bifold amphibian point amount standards, because: The amount is bidding in bifold format.The bifold point is floated around.Finally, let s see a program I wrote to catechumen a "float" amount into the IEEE754 announcement format: using System;public chic IeeeFloat { clandestine const int fraction_size = 23; clandestine const int bent = 127; clandestine float original_value; clandestine float value; clandestine int sign; clandestine continued exponent; clandestine int lead; clandestine int[] fraction; accessible IeeeFloat(float v) { original_value = v; amount = original_value; assurance = 1; advance = 0; backer ... Read More by user

## Tutorial Addendum On C# - Allotment B - Bifold Representation of float and bifold Ethics

In adjustment to acknowledgment some of the questions aloft in the antecedent sections, let s yield a abutting attending at how absolute numbers are represented in a computer system.In C#, the IEEE 754 single-precision and double-precision standards are usedto represent "float" and "double" blazon ethics respectively. We will altercate the storage representation of "decimal" after in this book.Since the IEEE 754 standards are broadly acclimated in the computer industry, there are a lots of publications accessible talking about these standards. In this section, I will explain alone some basal rules of the standards. Rule 1: The bifold representation is disconnected into 3 apparatus with altered amount of \$.25 assigned to anniversary compoents: Assurance Backer Atom TotalSingle-Precision 1 8 23 32Double-Precision 1 11 52 64Since the aberration amid the single-precision and double-precision is onlythe amount of \$.25 acclimated in the backer and atom components, we will alone usethe single... Read More by user

## Tutorial Addendum On C# - Allotment B - Classes

Output: Print(int i): 1.Print(long i): 12345678901234.Print(object o): 2.Print(int i, int j): 3, 4.Print(params int[] i): 5, 6.Two absorbing notes:Print(12345678901234) is mapped to Print(long i) because the accurate is accustomed as "long".Print(1,2) could aswell be mapped to Print(params int[] a), but I assumption Print(int i,int j) has college precedency. Or this is a anemic point in the accent design?PropertiesProperties are like fields. Ethics can be assigned to and retrieved from backdrop inthe aforementioned way as fields. But the acknowledgment of backdrop requires a get adjustment and a set method. If a amount is assigned to a property, its set adjustment will be executed.Similarly, if the amount is retrieved from a property, its get adjustment will beexecuted. There is no anamnesis anon allocated to a property. If the amount is truelyneeded to be stored, use addition acreage to help. The afterward program illustrates how a acreage can be used: using System;class Backdrop { cl... Read More by user

## Tutorial Addendum On C# - Allotment B - Classes

"const" and "readonly"C# has two key words to anticipate ethics of variables to be afflicted unwantedly: const and readonly. Actuality is a allegory of the two: "const" Automatically become "static" Can alone be amount based types Can alone be assigned in the acknowledgment statement Can alone be assigned with an announcement evaluable at the compiler time "readonly" Can be "static" or non "static" Can be amount or advertence based types Can alone be assigned in the acknowledgment statement The afterward sample program shows some absorbing features: class Constants { accessible const continued minimum = 1; // const is aswell static accessible const continued best = 100; accessible changeless readonly continued boilerplate = 50; accessible changeless readonly cord columnist = " Yang"; accessible changeless readonly int seeds = new int {3, 7, 11}; accessible changeless abandoned Main() { // minimum = 0; // appointment not allowed // best = 99; // boilerplate = 49; // appointment not allo... Read More by user

## Tutorial Addendum On C# - Allotment A - Data, Variables and Expressions

We can aswell put variables instead of literals into addition expression, as continued as the variables are of basic or absolute data type. For example:3.14159*diameter, sqrt_s*sqrt_s. Agenda that amplitude charaters afore or afterwards theoperator will be ignored.When a account with an addition accurate is executed, the announcement will be evaluated by assuming the addition operation, and the consistent amount will be placedinto the account area the announcement is located. For example, the afterward statements will abundance the amount 3 to a, and 15 to b. continued a, b; a = 1 + 2; b = 5*a;Multiple addition operations can aswell be entered into C# statements as an addition expression with a added circuitous syntax: arithmetic_expression: accurate arithmetic_operator accurate arithmetic_operator accurate ...For example: 5*1+2, pi*r*r, 199.99*qty+shipping_fee.Rule: If assorted operators are acclimated in an expression, data operation haveto be started with the abettor that has the ac... Read More by user
Tags: system, example, assignment, bread, price, level, value, console, operators, statement

## Tutorial Addendum On C# - Allotment A - Data, Variables and Expressions

Now let s analysis what accept abstruse in this area with a sample program: class Variables { accessible changeless abandoned Main() { bool is_ok; int n; int num_of_sec; continued number_of_sec_in_a_year; float sqrt_s; bifold sqrt_d; burn c1, c2, c3; burn cr, cn; is_ok = true; num_of_sec = 86400; number_of_sec_in_a_year = 30458700; sqrt_s = 1.4142F; sqrt_d = 1.4142135623730950488016887242097; c1 = a ; c2 = A ; c3 = 0 ; cr = ; cn = ; n = 1; System.Console.WriteLine("Value of is_ok = {0}.", is_ok); System.Console.WriteLine("1 day = {0} seconds.", num_of_sec); System.Console.WriteLine("1 year = {0} seconds.", number_of_sec_in_a_year); System.Console.WriteLine("Square basis of 2 (float) = {0}.",sqrt_s); System.Console.WriteLine("Square basis of 2 (double) = {0}.", sqrt_d); System.Console.WriteLine("Some approved characters: {0}, {1}, {2}.", c1, c2, c3); System.Console.WriteLine("The acknowledgment character: {0}.", cr); System.Console.WriteLine("The new band character: {0}.", cn); n = 9;... Read More by user

## Tutorial Addendum On C# - Allotment A - Data, Variables and Expressions

Variables, Declarations, and Appointment StatementsLiterals advice us to access data into C# programs area it is bare for processing.If the aforementioned data is bare in two places, then we can access the data into two places.But this is not efficient. We charge a way to store data into computer memory, and retrieve it aback later. This is done through the use of variables.Variable represents an breadth in the computer anamnesis area a amount of a accurate data typecan be stored. The stored amount can then be retrieved after by apropos to the name of the variable.Variables are disconnected into altered types based on the blazon and the admeasurement of datato be stored. Anniversary capricious blazon has its own aloof key chat in C# which is acclimated to ascertain variables in that type. The afterward is a account of key words for some frequently usedvariable types:bool - Boolean, acclimated to abundance ethics of boolean data type.int - Integer, acclimated to abundance ethics of accu... Read More by user
Tags: based, different, assignment, character, store, allowed, value, stored, memory, float, values, statement

## Tutorial Addendum On C# - Allotment A - Analytic Expressions and Codicillary Statements

Let s see how we can use "if" statements to break the afterward tax adding problem. The federal government anesthetized the afterward tax law for year 2002: For anniversary of your taxable assets dollar amid \$1 and \$30000, you pay \$0.20 taxFor anniversary of your taxable assets dollar amid \$30001 and \$50000, you pay \$0.25 tax.For anniversary of your taxable assets dollar amid \$50001 and \$70000, you pay \$0.30 tax.For anniversary of your taxable assets dollar aloft \$50000, you pay \$0.35 tax.Now assuming, you are authoritative \$85000 in 2002, how abundant federal tax will you pay? See the output of the afterward program: class Taxes { accessible changeless abandoned Main() { bifold assets = 85000.0; bifold tax = 0.0; if (income>30000.0) { tax = tax + 30000.0*0.20; } abroad if (income>0.0) { tax = tax + income*0.20; } if (income>50000.0) { tax = tax + (50000.0-30000.0)*0.25; } abroad if (income>30000.0) { tax = tax + (income-30000.0)*0.25; } if (income>70000.0) { tax = tax + (70000.0... Read More by user

## Tutorial Addendum On C# - Allotment A - Analytic Expressions and Codicillary Statements

Logical ExpressionsLogical expression is a way of cogent a analytic condition, aloft which assertive partsof the program beheading breeze can be altered. For example, a appliance abundance wants the following supply accuse in its balance program: if the absolute bulk of an adjustment is less than \$200.00, supply is answerable as \$25.00; if the bulk is greater than or equal to \$200.00, supply is free. Actuality "amount is beneath than \$200.00" is a analytic conditionthat needs to be entered in C# program as a analytic express. The alotof simplest analytic altitude involves relational operators: ">": Greater than"<": Beneath than">=": Greater than or equal"<=": Beneath than or equal"==": Equal"!=": Not equalA relational operation can be entered into C# programs as a analytic announcement with thefollowing syntax: logical_expression: arithmetic_expression relational_operator arithmetic_expressAfter evaluation, a analytic announcement will aftermath a boolean value, true or false.Exa... Read More by user
Tags: simple, program, statements, value, greater, delivery, statement, false

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